January 27, 2011

The Future of the Global Muslim Population

Appendix B: Data Sources by Country

 

The below list of general sources provides bibliographic information for sources that were used to provide estimates and projections for the Muslim populations of multiple countries. The subsequent list of sources by country provides abbreviated bibliographic information identifying which general sources were used as the basis for estimates and projections for countries, as well as fuller bibliographic information for sources that were used for one country only. All estimates and projections were made by The Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life unless otherwise noted.

General Sources

Demographic and Health Surveys. MEASURE DHS. Calverton, Maryland: Administered by Macro International, 1995-2007. http://www.measuredhs.com/

European Social Survey. London: Led by Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University, 2004, 2006. http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/

Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2009 Survey http://pewglobal.org/datasets/

Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2007 Survey http://pewglobal.org/datasets/

Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2002 Survey http://pewglobal.org/datasets/

Population Reference Bureau. John R. Weeks “The Demography of Islamic Nations,” Population Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 4. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, Inc., December 1988.

United Nations Demographic Yearbook. “Special Census Topics Volume 2 – Social characteristics, ‘Table 6: Population by religion, sex, urban/rural residence and percentage: each census, 1985-2004.’ ” New York: United Nations Statistics Division, 2006. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sconcerns/popchar/popchar2.htm

United Nations. “UNdata.” UNdata is an internet-based data service that makes U.N. statistical databases available through a single entry point. http://data.un.org/

World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. United Nations Population Division, 2009. http://esa.un.org/UNPP/

World Religion Database: International Religious Demographic Statistics and Sources. Todd M. Johnson and Brian J. Grim, eds. Leiden, Netherlands and Boston, Mass.: Brill, 2010. http://www.worldreligiondatabase.org

World Values Survey (WVS). “Values Survey Database.” World Values Survey Association, 1999-2006. http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/

Sources by Country

Afghanistan: 1990 estimate based on 1979 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Albania: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1998 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2005 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 3 and the 2002 Albania Reproductive Health Survey

Algeria: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

American Samoa: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Andorra: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 World Values Survey

Angola: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2002 Survey

Anguilla: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census

Antigua and Barbuda: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Argentina: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2009 estimate by consultant Khaleel Mohammed (see Appendix C: Advisers and Consultants).

Armenia: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Demographic and Health Survey

Aruba: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Australia: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on an analysis of the 2006 Census carried out by consultant Farhat Yusuf (see Appendix C: Advisers and Consultants).

Austria: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2001 Census

Azerbaijan: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 1997 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Demographic and Health Survey

Bahamas: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Census data obtained from personal email correspondence with United Nations Statistics Division.

Bahrain: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from “Part 2, ‘Table – 0603.0: POPULATION BY RELIGION, AGE GROUPS, NATIONALITY AND SEX – 2001.’” Bahrain Census 2001. Bahrain: Directorate of Statistics in Central Informatics Organization, 2001. http://www.cio.gov.bh/CIO_ENG/sitemap.aspx

Bangladesh: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on an analysis of the 2001 Census carried out by consultants Khan Mohammad Mohsin, e-Khuda and and Narul Alam (see Appendix C: Advisers and Consultants).

Barbados: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 estimate based on 2010 World Religion Database

Belarus: 1990 estimate based on 1996 World Values Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2000 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 World Values Survey

Belgium: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2004 European Social Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on 2001 Census

Belize: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Benin: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Demographic and Health Survey; 2020, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census and 2006 Demographic and Health Survey. Census data obtained from “ ‘Table: Ethnie et Religion,’ Principaux Indicateurs Socio-Demographiques,” Troisieme Recensement General de la Population et de l’Habitation, Febrier 2002. Institut National de la Statistique et de L’Analyse Economique, 2003. http:// www.insae-bj.org/IMG/pdf/principaux_indicateur_rgph3.pdf  (PDF) and http://www. insae-bj.org/?Religion

Bermuda: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Bhutan: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Bolivia: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Country Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2001 World Values Survey and the 2002 World Bank Living In Bosnia and Herzegovina Survey

Botswana: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Census data obtained from Ntloedibe-Kuswani, G.S. “AFRICAN RELIGIONS AND 2001 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS IN BOTSWANA.” Centre for Continuing Education, University of Botswana, 2003. http://www.cso.gov.bw/images/stories/Census/paper24.pdf (PDF)

Brazil: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

British Virgin Islands: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Brunei: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census

Bulgaria: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2001 Census

Burkina Faso: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 1998 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

Burma (Myanmar): 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Burundi: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2007 InterMedia Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2007 InterMedia Survey. Washington, D.C.: InterMedia. Prepared for Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life in 2009.http://www.intermedia.org/

Cambodia: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1998 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 Demographic and Health Survey

Cameroon: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 1998 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2004 Demographic and Health Survey

Canada: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census and Statistics Canada’s 2010 study, “Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population”

Cape Verde: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2005 Afrobarometer Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2008 Afrobarometer Survey

Cayman Islands: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Central African Republic: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1995 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1995 Demographic and Health Survey

Chad: 1990 estimate based on 1993 Census; 2000 estimate based on 1996-1997 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2004 Demographic and Health Survey

Channel Islands: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Chile: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census. Obtained from personal email correspondence with United Nations Statistics Division.

China: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on ethnicity data in 2000 Census. Census data obtained from The Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China. China: Nationalities Publishing House, 2003.

Colombia: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 World Values Survey

Comoros: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Congo: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2007 Demographic and Health Survey

Cook Islands: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Costa Rica: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2007 Latinobarometro. Chile: Latinobarometro Corporation. Obtained by Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life in 2009.http://www.latinobarometro.org/

Croatia: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census

Cuba: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Cyprus: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 World Religion Database and 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Czech Republic: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Denmark: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on 2009 data from Statistics Denmark

Djibouti: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Dominica: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Dominican Republic: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Ecuador: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Egypt: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 1996 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 Demographic and Health Survey

El Salvador: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Equatorial Guinea: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Eritrea: 1990 estimate based on 1995 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Demographic and Health Survey

Estonia: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Country Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Ethiopia: 1990 estimate based on 1994 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2007 Census. Census data obtained from “Table 6: Population Size of Regions by Religion and Place of Residence: 2007.” Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census: Population Size by Age and Sex. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Population Census Commission, 2008.

Faeroe Islands: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Falkland Islands (Malvinas): 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Federated States of Micronesia: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Obtained from personal email correspondence with United Nations Statistics Division.

Fiji: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1996 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2007 Census. Obtained from “‘Table 2.10 Population by Religion and Province of Enumeration, Fiji: 2007 Census,’ Key Statistics: March 2009.” Fiji 2007 Census. Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics, 2009.

Finland: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on 2008 data from Statistics Finland

France: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2002 Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2008-2009 Trajectoires et Origines survey and the 1999 Census

French Guiana: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

French Polynesia: 1990 estimate based on 1971 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Gabon: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Demographic and Health Survey

Gambia: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2004 InterMedia Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2004 InterMedia Survey. Washington, D.C.: InterMedia. Prepared for Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life in 2009.http://www.intermedia.org/

Georgia: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2002 Census and the 2005 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 3

Germany: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2009 German Interior Ministry Survey, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees’ 2008 study, “Muslim Life in Germany,” Religionsmonitor 2008, 2009 data from Eurostat and the 2002-2004 estimates of Total Fertility Rates of Turkish Population in Germany done by Susanne Schmid and Martin Kohls, Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) based on data from the Statutory Pension Insurance report SUFAKVS04XVSBB

Ghana: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Gibraltar: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Greece: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2002 European Social Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2001 Census

Greenland: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Grenada: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Guadeloupe: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Guam: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Guatemala: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 1998 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Guinea: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 Demographic and Health Survey

Guinea Bissau: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Guyana: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census. Census data obtained from “‘Religious Composition,’ Chapter II Population Composition,” Census 2002 National Census Report. Guyana Bureau of Statistics, 2007. http://www.statisticsguyana.gov.gy/pubs/Chapter2_Population_Composition.pdf(PDF)

Haiti: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2003 Census. Census data obtained from “Le Quatrième Recensement General de la Population et de l’Habitat.” Haiti 2003 Census. Institut Haïtien de Statistique et d’Informatique, 2003.http://www.ihsi.ht/rgph_resultat_ensemble_population.htm#

Honduras: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Hong Kong: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2009 Hong Kong Government Statistical Summary

Hungary: 1990 estimate based on 1991 World Values Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Iceland: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

India: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from “Table: India at a Glance – Religious Composition.” India 2001 Census. Government of India: Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, 2001. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/religion.aspxand http://www.censusindia.net/

Indonesia: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Iran: 1990 estimate based on 1986 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Census. Census data obtained from consultant Farzaneh Zayan Roudi (see Appendix C: Advisers and Consultants).

Iraq: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2004 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 World Values Survey

Ireland: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2006 Census

Isle of Man: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Israel: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on 2009 Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2009 Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics and “Projection for 2010 and 2025, by Population, Religion, Variant and Average Yearly Percentage of Growth, 2005.” www.cbs.gov.il

Italy: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the 2010 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2009 Fondazione Iniziative e Studi sulla Multietnicità (ISMU) and the 2002 Eurostat

Ivory Coast: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Census; 2000 estimate based on 1998 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 Demographic and Health Survey

Jamaica: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Japan: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Jordan: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Demographic and Health Survey

Kazakhstan: 1990 estimate based on 1995 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1999 Demographic and Health Survey

Kenya: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2003 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

Kiribati: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 Census. Census data obtained from “Section 4.2, ‘Religion.’ ” Kiribati 2005 Census, Volume 2: Analytical Report. Kiribati National Statistics Office, 2007.http://www.spc.int/prism/Country/KI/Stats/CensusSurveys/censurveys-index.htm

Kosovo: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the 2010 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2000 World Bank, Kosovo Living Standards Measurement Study Survey and 2000 data from the Statistical Office of Kosovo

Kuwait: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Kyrgyzstan: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 1997 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1997 Demographic and Health Survey

Laos: 1990 estimate based on 1995 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 Census

Latvia: 1990 estimate based on 1990 World Values Survey; 2000 estimate based on 1999 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1999 World Values Survey

Lebanon: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2002 Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Lesotho: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2003 Afrobarometer Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Liberia: 1990 estimate based on 1986 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2007 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2008 Census. Census data obtained from “Table 4.3: Distribution of Population by Religious Affiliation, Age and Sex, Liberia 2008.” 2008 Population and Housing Census: Final Results. Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services, 2009.

Libya: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Liechtenstein: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Census data obtained from “Religion und Hauptsprachen – Band 2.” Liechtenstein 2000 Census. Lichtenstein Statistics Department, 2000. http://www.llv.li/pdf-llv-avw-statistik-religion_und_hauptsprache_teil1-analyse(PDF)

Lithuania: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Luxembourg: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2002 European Social Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2008 European Values Survey

Macau: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1991 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Madagascar: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 1997 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2004 Demographic and Health Survey

Malawi: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1998 Census. Obtained from World Christian Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition. David B. Barrett, George T. Kurian, and Todd M. Johnson, eds. United States: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Malaysia: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Maldives: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Mali: 1990 estimate based on 1987 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Demographic and Health Survey

Malta: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Marshall Islands: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1999 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Martinique: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Mauritania: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 World Religion Database

Mauritius: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Mayotte: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Mexico: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1996 World Values Survey

Moldova: 1990 estimate based on 1996 World Values Survey; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Monaco: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Mongolia: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Montenegro: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the 2010 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2003 Census and the 2003 data from The Statistical Office of Montenegro

Montserrat: 1990 estimate based on 1980 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1980 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Morocco: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2001 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2007 Survey

Mozambique: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1997 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

Namibia: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Nauru: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census. Census data obtained from “Chapter 2 ‘Population Characteristics-Religion.’” 2002 Nauru Census Main Report and Demographic Profile of the Republic of Nauru 1992-2002. The Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2006.http://www.spc.int/prism/country/nr/stats/Publication/Census/NR_02_Census_Rept_FINAL.pdf (PDF)

Nepal: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Netherlands: 1990 estimate based on 1986 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2003 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on 2007 data from Statistics Netherlands

Netherlands Antilles: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1992 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

New Caledonia: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

New Zealand: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Census.

Nicaragua: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Niger: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Census; 2000 estimate based on 1998 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Demographic and Health Survey

Nigeria: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys and 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey

Niue: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Census data obtained from personal email correspondence with United Nations Statistics Division.

North Korea: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Northern Mariana Islands: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Norway: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on 2009 data from Statistics Norway

Oman: 1990 estimate based on 1993 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1993 Census. Census data obtained from “ ‘Table No.1: Total Population by Region: Omani & Non-Omani’; ‘Table 3.1.8: Non-Omani Population by Region, Religion, and Sex’; ‘Section 2-5: Religion,’ Housing and Establishments.” General Census of Population. Sultanate of Oman: Ministry of Development, 1993.

Pakistan: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1998 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1998 Census. Census data obtained from “Table: Population by Religion.” 1998 Population Census. Government of Pakistan: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, 1998. http://www.census.gov.pk/Religion.htm

Palau: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Census data obtained from personal email correspondence with United Nations Statistics Division.

Palestinian territories: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1997 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2009 Survey

Panama: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Papua New Guinea: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Paraguay: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Peru: 1990 estimate based on 1993 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Philippines: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Pitcairn Islands: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Poland: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2008 European Social Survey

Portugal: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2008 European Social Survey

Puerto Rico: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Qatar: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2004 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2004 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Republic of Congo: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 Demographic and Health Survey

Republic of Macedonia: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2002 Census, the 2003-2004 South East European Social Survey Project and the 2005 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 3

Reunion: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Romania: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2002 Census

Russia: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on ethnicity data in 2002 Country Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on ethnicity data in 2002 Census. Census data obtained from Heleniak, Timothy. “Regional Distribution of the Muslim Population of Russia, ‘Table 4: Russia’s Ethnic Muslim Population by Region, 1989 and 2002,’” Eurasian Geography and Economics. Volume 47, No. 4. 2006.

Rwanda: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census. Census data obtained from “Table TA06E. Distribution of the Resident Population in Ordinary Households by Religious Affiliation, Urban/Rural Residence and by Sex.” The Rwanda 2002 Census of Population and Housing. Rwanda: National Census Service, 2004.

St. Helena: 1990 estimate based on 1987 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

St. Kitts and Nevis: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

St. Lucia: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Country Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

St. Pierre and Miquelon: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Country Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

St. Vincent and the Grenadines: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Samoa: 1990 estimate based on 1981 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from personal email correspondence with United Nations Statistics Division.

San Marino: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Sao Tome and Principe: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Saudi Arabia: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2003 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2003 World Values Survey

Senegal: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Afrobarometer Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Demographic and Health Survey

Serbia: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2002 Census

Seychelles: 1990 estimate based on 1987 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Sierra Leone: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based 2004 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2004 Census. Census data obtained from “Table 1.9: Percentage distribution of Heads by Religion by Region and Residence.” Sierra Leone Integrated Household Survey (SLIHS) 2003/04. Government of Sierra Leone, 2007.http://www.statistics.sl/slihs_report.pdf(PDF)

Singapore: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Slovakia: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2008 European Social Survey

Slovenia: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Solomon Islands: 1990 estimate based on 1986 Census; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1999 Census. Obtained from “Table P01-3: Relationship, Ethnicity, and Religion by Province of Enumeration, Solomon Islands: 1999.” Solomon Islands 1999 Census. PacificWeb.org. http://www.pacificweb.org/DOCS/Other P.I/SolomonIs/Si1999/PROVINCE.doc

Somalia: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

South Africa: 1990 estimate based on 1996 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

South Korea: 1990 estimate based on 1996 World Values Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2001 World Values Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Spain: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2008 Eurostat, the 2008 Statistics Spain and the 2007 Spanish Municipal Population Registry and National Immigrants Survey

Sri Lanka: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Census data obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Sudan: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Suriname: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Swaziland: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Demographic and Health Survey

Sweden: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on 2008 data from Statistics Sweden

Switzerland: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2006 Census and Goujon, A., Skirbekk, V., and K. Fliegenschnee, “New Times, Old Beliefs: Investigating the Future of Religions in Austria and Switzerland,” Eurostat/UNECE Demographic Projections Conference Proceedings, pp. 355-370, 2007.

Syria: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Taiwan: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 World Values Survey

Tajikistan: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2003 ethnicity data from Goskomstat

Tanzania: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2004 Demographic and Health Survey

Thailand: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2009 estimate by consultant Aree Jampaklay (see Appendix C: Advisers and Consultants).

Timor-Leste: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2003 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

Togo: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 1998 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1998 Demographic and Health Survey

Tokelau: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Census. Census data obtained from “‘Table 2.5: Lotu i te Fenua e Mahani Nofo ai (Religion by Atoll of Usual Residence),’ Tabular Report, Section 2, Social Profile.” Tokelau 2006 Census of Population and Dwellings. Statistics New Zealand and the Office of the Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau, 2006.http://www.spc.int/prism/country/tk/stats/Reports/2006censusrpts/2006%20Census%20Tabular%20Report%20-%20Final.pdf(PDF)

Tonga: 1990 estimate based on 1996 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2001 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Trinidad and Tobago: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Census. Obtained from “Non- Institutional Population: Religion.” Trinidad and Tobago 2000 Census: 2007 Pocket Digest. Central Statistical Office, 2007.  http://cso.gov.tt/files/cms/PocketDigest2007.pdf(PDF)

Tunisia: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 World Religion Database

Turkey: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on Carkoglu, Ali and Binnaz, Toprak, “Religion, Society and Politics in a Changing Turkey,” Istanbul: Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation Publications, 2006.

Turkmenistan: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2000 Demographic and Health Survey. Demographic and Health Survey data obtained from “Table 3.2: Residence, ethnicity, and religion by region.” Turkmenistan Demographic and Health Survey 2000. Calverton, Maryland: Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health (GECRCMCH) and ORC Macro; Turkmenistan: Ministry of Health and Medical Industry. Calverton, Maryland: GECRCMCH and ORC Macro, 2001. NOTE: The DHS dataset for Turkmenistan has never been released, but data on religious affiliation was included in the text of the DHS report cited here.

Turks and Caicos Islands: 1990 estimate based on 1990 Census; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Tuvalu: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Uganda: 1990 estimate based on 1991 Census; 2000 estimate based on 2001-2002 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Census. Obtained from United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

Ukraine: 1990 estimate based on 1999 World Values Survey; 2000 estimate based on Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project 2002 Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2001 Census and the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey

United Arab Emirates: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

United Kingdom: 1990 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2000 estimate based on 2001 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis based on the 2001 Census

Uruguay: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

United States: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections carried out by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and The Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life based on the Pew Research Center’s 2007 survey, “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream,” the 2003 New Immigrants Survey, the 2008 American Community Survey and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Vital Statistics data

Uzbekistan: 1990 estimate based on 1996 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2002 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2002 Demographic and Health Survey

Vanuatu: 1990 estimate based on 1989 Census; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 1999 Census. Obtained from “Table D: The three most common religious groups by province”; “Table 2.10: Population by religion and island of residence.” 1999 Population and Housing Census. Vanuatu National Statistics Office, 2001.

Vatican City: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Venezuela: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Vietnam: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

U.S. Virgin Islands: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Wallis and Futuna: 1990 and 2000 estimates based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2010 World Religion Database

Western Sahara: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 World Religion Database

Yemen: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on World Religion Database; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2005 World Religion Database

Zambia: 1990 estimate based on 1992 Demographic and Health Survey; 2000 estimate based on 2000 Census; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2007 Demographic and Health Survey

Zimbabwe: 1990 estimate based on 1988 Population Reference Bureau; 2000 estimate based on 1999 Demographic and Health Survey; 2010, 2020 and 2030 projections based on 2006 Demographic and Health Survey