Belief in Hell among adults with a household income of less than $30,000

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who …in hell

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 8,845. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 63% 29% 8% 8,845
2007 65% 25% 10% 8,068

Learn More: Believe, Don't believe

Belief in Hell among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by religious group

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who …in hell

Religious tradition Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Catholic 64% 27% 8% 1,812
Evangelical Protestant 82% 11% 7% 2,370
Historically Black Protestant 83% 11% 7% 791
Jehovah's Witness 9% 87% 5% 102
Mainline Protestant 68% 22% 9% 1,208
Mormon 64% 26% 9% 131
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 39% 52% 9% 1,852

Learn More: Believe, Don't believe

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who are ages…

Belief in Hell 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 5,403. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 25% 32% 25% 18% 5,403
Don't believe 33% 27% 21% 19% 2,630
Other/don't know 21% 29% 25% 25% 735

Generational cohort among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who are…

Belief in Hell Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 5,403. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 15% 17% 25% 29% 13% 1% 5,403
Don't believe 18% 21% 21% 26% 12% 1% 2,630
Other/don't know 11% 14% 25% 30% 17% 3% 735

Gender composition among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who are…

Belief in Hell Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 58% 5,448
Don't believe 45% 55% 2,647
Other/don't know 42% 58% 750

Racial and ethnic composition among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who identify as…

Belief in Hell White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 5,404. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 50% 20% 2% 23% 4% 5,404
Don't believe 59% 10% 3% 23% 5% 2,627
Other/don't know 57% 15% 1% 22% 6% 733

Immigrant status among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who are…

Belief in Hell Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 5,348. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 19% 9% 72% 5,348
Don't believe 21% 13% 66% 2,609
Other/don't know 18% 8% 73% 728

Educational distribution among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who have completed…

Belief in Hell High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 5,431. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 64% 29% 5% 2% 5,431
Don't believe 52% 32% 11% 5% 2,641
Other/don't know 59% 31% 6% 3% 745

Marital status among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who are…

Belief in Hell Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 5,434. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 29% 9% 20% 11% 31% 5,434
Don't believe 25% 13% 19% 9% 34% 2,639
Other/don't know 25% 8% 22% 14% 32% 743

Parent of children under 18 among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who are…

Belief in Hell Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 5,440. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 31% 69% 5,440
Don't believe 24% 76% 2,642
Other/don't know 24% 76% 747

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say they…

Belief in Hell Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 77% 18% 3% 1% 1% 1% 5,448
Don't believe 44% 24% 9% 1% 21% 3% 2,647
Other/don't know 60% 22% 8% 2% 3% 5% 750

Importance of religion in one's life among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say religion is…

Belief in Hell Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 69% 22% 5% 3% 1% 5,448
Don't believe 35% 26% 16% 23% 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 54% 26% 11% 6% 3% 750

Attendance at religious services among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who attend religious services…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 34% 23% 1% 5,448
Don't believe 21% 30% 49% < 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 33% 31% 34% 2% 750

Frequency of prayer among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who pray…

Belief in Hell At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 69% 17% 5% 9% 1% 5,448
Don't believe 42% 13% 6% 38% 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 56% 13% 6% 20% 4% 750

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who attend prayer group…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 33% 13% 9% 45% 1% 5,448
Don't believe 16% 6% 6% 72% < 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 22% 6% 9% 61% 3% 750

Frequency of meditation among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who meditate…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 47% 8% 4% 39% 2% 5,448
Don't believe 42% 10% 4% 43% 2% 2,647
Other/don't know 44% 7% 5% 39% 4% 750

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 64% 14% 8% 13% 1% 5,448
Don't believe 50% 14% 9% 25% 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 56% 13% 8% 19% 4% 750

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 46% 14% 12% 26% 2% 5,448
Don't believe 52% 13% 10% 24% 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 52% 12% 9% 23% 4% 750

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Belief in Hell Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 43% 7% 41% 6% 2% 5,448
Don't believe 19% 15% 51% 14% 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 27% 10% 50% 7% 6% 750

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say…

Belief in Hell There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 32% 65% 1% 1% 5,448
Don't believe 22% 76% 1% 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 24% 70% 3% 3% 750

Frequency of reading scripture among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who read scripture…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 49% 12% 8% 30% 1% 5,448
Don't believe 24% 9% 7% 59% 1% 2,647
Other/don't know 34% 10% 8% 46% 1% 750

Interpreting scripture among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say the holy scripture is…

Belief in Hell Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 51% 26% 3% 14% 6% 5,448
Don't believe 19% 19% 1% 54% 7% 2,647
Other/don't know 31% 16% 5% 29% 19% 750

Belief in Heaven among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who …in heaven

Belief in Hell Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 95% 3% 2% 5,448
Don't believe 45% 49% 6% 2,647
Other/don't know 53% 3% 44% 750

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who identify as…

Belief in Hell Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 31% 20% 49% 5,448
Don't believe 20% 27% 52% 2,647
Other/don't know 22% 30% 48% 750

Political ideology among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who are…

Belief in Hell Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 38% 33% 22% 8% 5,448
Don't believe 22% 30% 39% 8% 2,647
Other/don't know 30% 33% 22% 14% 750

Views about size of government among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who would rather have…

Belief in Hell Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 37% 58% 2% 3% 5,448
Don't believe 40% 53% 3% 4% 2,647
Other/don't know 36% 49% 6% 9% 750

Views about government aid to the poor among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say government aid to the poor…

Belief in Hell Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 37% 57% 4% 2% 5,448
Don't believe 32% 63% 3% 2% 2,647
Other/don't know 30% 56% 7% 7% 750

Views about abortion among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say abortion should be…

Belief in Hell Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 54% 4% 5,448
Don't believe 63% 33% 4% 2,647
Other/don't know 48% 42% 11% 750

Views about homosexuality among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say homosexuality…

Belief in Hell Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 53% 40% 4% 3% 5,448
Don't believe 76% 19% 3% 2% 2,647
Other/don't know 58% 24% 9% 9% 750

Views about same-sex marriage among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who …same-sex marriage

Belief in Hell Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 50% 8% 5,448
Don't believe 68% 25% 7% 2,647
Other/don't know 47% 35% 18% 750

Views about environmental regulation among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say…

Belief in Hell Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 52% 2% 4% 5,448
Don't believe 31% 63% 2% 4% 2,647
Other/don't know 38% 49% 4% 9% 750

Views about human evolution among adults with a household income of less than $30,000 by belief in hell

% of adults with a household income of less than $30,000 who say humans…

Belief in Hell Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 20% 28% 3% 44% 5% 5,448
Don't believe 47% 19% 4% 26% 4% 2,647
Other/don't know 29% 19% 8% 30% 13% 750