Belief in Hell among independents and those who don't lean to either party

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who …in hell

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,658. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 53% 36% 11% 5,658
2007 54% 31% 16% 5,770

Learn More: Believe, Don't believe

Belief in Hell among independents and those who don't lean to either party by religious group

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who …in hell

Religious tradition Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Catholic 59% 31% 10% 1,158
Evangelical Protestant 78% 13% 9% 1,230
Historically Black Protestant 77% 16% 7% 184
Jehovah's Witness 5% 92% 3% 188
Mainline Protestant 59% 26% 15% 822
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 33% 55% 12% 1,474

Learn More: Believe, Don't believe

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are ages…

Belief in Hell 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 2,772. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 25% 40% 22% 13% 2,772
Don't believe 28% 35% 23% 14% 2,012
Other/don't know 21% 40% 24% 15% 600

Generational cohort among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Hell Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 2,772. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 15% 18% 33% 26% 8% 1% 2,772
Don't believe 17% 19% 28% 28% 8% 1% 2,012
Other/don't know 11% 18% 33% 28% 9% 1% 600

Gender composition among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Hell Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 47% 53% 2,894
Don't believe 51% 49% 2,105
Other/don't know 50% 50% 659

Racial and ethnic composition among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who identify as…

Belief in Hell White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 2,823. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 56% 10% 4% 24% 6% 2,823
Don't believe 59% 7% 6% 23% 5% 2,041
Other/don't know 61% 7% 5% 22% 6% 605

Immigrant status among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Hell Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 2,791. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 24% 8% 68% 2,791
Don't believe 24% 10% 66% 2,054
Other/don't know 24% 11% 66% 624

Income distribution among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who have a household income of…

Belief in Hell Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 2,213. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 51% 21% 19% 9% 2,213
Don't believe 44% 19% 23% 14% 1,684
Other/don't know 51% 16% 19% 14% 444

Educational distribution among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who have completed…

Belief in Hell High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 2,844. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 55% 30% 10% 5% 2,844
Don't believe 47% 31% 14% 8% 2,075
Other/don't know 47% 32% 13% 8% 641

Marital status among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Hell Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 2,858. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 45% 8% 15% 7% 25% 2,858
Don't believe 43% 11% 14% 5% 27% 2,084
Other/don't know 43% 9% 14% 6% 28% 634

Parent of children under 18 among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Hell Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 2,866. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 36% 64% 2,866
Don't believe 29% 71% 2,099
Other/don't know 29% 71% 642

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say they…

Belief in Hell Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 73% 19% 4% 1% 1% 1% 2,894
Don't believe 46% 21% 6% 1% 22% 4% 2,105
Other/don't know 54% 21% 9% 3% 4% 10% 659

Importance of religion in one's life among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say religion is…

Belief in Hell Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 64% 25% 6% 4% 1% 2,894
Don't believe 35% 24% 16% 24% 1% 2,105
Other/don't know 46% 26% 13% 10% 5% 659

Attendance at religious services among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who attend religious services…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 40% 34% 25% 1% 2,894
Don't believe 25% 27% 47% 1% 2,105
Other/don't know 28% 30% 37% 5% 659

Frequency of prayer among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who pray…

Belief in Hell At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 64% 17% 6% 12% 1% 2,894
Don't believe 40% 11% 6% 42% 1% 2,105
Other/don't know 47% 13% 6% 27% 7% 659

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who attend prayer group…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 30% 10% 9% 50% 2% 2,894
Don't believe 19% 5% 6% 69% 1% 2,105
Other/don't know 19% 7% 8% 61% 4% 659

Frequency of meditation among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who meditate…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 44% 7% 3% 43% 3% 2,894
Don't believe 40% 8% 4% 45% 2% 2,105
Other/don't know 40% 7% 5% 42% 6% 659

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 63% 13% 8% 14% 2% 2,894
Don't believe 52% 13% 9% 24% 2% 2,105
Other/don't know 56% 12% 8% 17% 7% 659

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 44% 13% 12% 29% 3% 2,894
Don't believe 50% 13% 11% 25% 2% 2,105
Other/don't know 48% 12% 12% 21% 6% 659

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Belief in Hell Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 41% 7% 42% 7% 4% 2,894
Don't believe 20% 13% 51% 12% 4% 2,105
Other/don't know 26% 11% 48% 5% 10% 659

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say…

Belief in Hell There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 33% 63% 2% 2% 2,894
Don't believe 26% 71% 1% 2% 2,105
Other/don't know 25% 67% 4% 4% 659

Frequency of reading scripture among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who read scripture…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 44% 10% 8% 37% 1% 2,894
Don't believe 24% 7% 7% 61% 1% 2,105
Other/don't know 29% 11% 8% 48% 5% 659

Interpreting scripture among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say the holy scripture is…

Belief in Hell Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 27% 5% 17% 9% 2,894
Don't believe 16% 19% 2% 54% 9% 2,105
Other/don't know 22% 16% 7% 30% 25% 659

Belief in Heaven among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who …in heaven

Belief in Hell Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 94% 3% 3% 2,894
Don't believe 40% 54% 7% 2,105
Other/don't know 39% 2% 59% 659

SocialandPoliticalViews

Political ideology among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Hell Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 30% 32% 18% 21% 2,894
Don't believe 18% 36% 23% 23% 2,105
Other/don't know 25% 33% 15% 27% 659

Views about size of government among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who would rather have…

Belief in Hell Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 43% 46% 4% 7% 2,894
Don't believe 51% 38% 5% 6% 2,105
Other/don't know 45% 35% 8% 12% 659

Views about government aid to the poor among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say government aid to the poor…

Belief in Hell Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 43% 47% 6% 4% 2,894
Don't believe 39% 51% 6% 4% 2,105
Other/don't know 38% 44% 8% 9% 659

Views about abortion among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say abortion should be…

Belief in Hell Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 52% 7% 2,894
Don't believe 58% 34% 7% 2,105
Other/don't know 43% 42% 15% 659

Views about homosexuality among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say homosexuality…

Belief in Hell Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 52% 35% 7% 6% 2,894
Don't believe 70% 20% 5% 5% 2,105
Other/don't know 55% 23% 10% 13% 659

Views about same-sex marriage among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who …same-sex marriage

Belief in Hell Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 43% 43% 14% 2,894
Don't believe 64% 25% 12% 2,105
Other/don't know 46% 30% 25% 659

Views about environmental regulation among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say…

Belief in Hell Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 40% 51% 4% 6% 2,894
Don't believe 29% 60% 4% 7% 2,105
Other/don't know 33% 50% 6% 11% 659

Views about human evolution among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in hell

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say humans…

Belief in Hell Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 2,894. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 21% 27% 5% 40% 7% 2,894
Don't believe 44% 19% 6% 26% 5% 2,105
Other/don't know 27% 17% 13% 27% 16% 659