Income distribution among adults who believe in Hell by religious group

% of adults who believe in Hell who have a household income of…

Religious tradition Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Catholic 37% 20% 26% 18% 3,824
Evangelical Protestant 35% 23% 28% 14% 6,085
Historically Black Protestant 53% 22% 18% 7% 1,399
Jewish 31% 16% 25% 27% 125
Mainline Protestant 32% 21% 27% 20% 2,878
Mormon 28% 20% 31% 21% 341
Muslim 34% 19% 30% 18% 148
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 48% 21% 21% 10% 1,493

Learn More: Less than $30,000, $30,000-$49,999, $50,000-$99,999, $100,000 or more

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who are ages…

Income distribution 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 5,403. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 25% 32% 25% 18% 5,403
$30,000-$49,999 21% 36% 25% 18% 3,450
$50,000-$99,999 19% 39% 29% 13% 4,569
$100,000 or more 15% 42% 32% 10% 3,084

Generational cohort among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who are…

Income distribution Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 5,403. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 15% 17% 25% 29% 13% 1% 5,403
$30,000-$49,999 12% 17% 28% 30% 12% 1% 3,450
$50,000-$99,999 12% 14% 32% 34% 7% < 1% 4,569
$100,000 or more 12% 8% 38% 36% 6% < 1% 3,084

Gender composition among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who are…

Income distribution Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 42% 58% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 48% 52% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 52% 48% 4,613
$100,000 or more 58% 42% 3,116

Racial and ethnic composition among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who identify as…

Income distribution White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 5,404. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 50% 20% 2% 23% 4% 5,404
$30,000-$49,999 64% 15% 2% 14% 4% 3,445
$50,000-$99,999 75% 11% 3% 8% 3% 4,574
$100,000 or more 78% 8% 4% 7% 3% 3,087

Immigrant status among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who are…

Income distribution Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 5,348. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 19% 9% 72% 5,348
$30,000-$49,999 13% 9% 79% 3,444
$50,000-$99,999 8% 8% 84% 4,591
$100,000 or more 9% 9% 82% 3,102

Educational distribution among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who have completed…

Income distribution High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 5,431. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 64% 29% 5% 2% 5,431
$30,000-$49,999 45% 38% 13% 4% 3,469
$50,000-$99,999 31% 39% 20% 10% 4,603
$100,000 or more 20% 28% 30% 22% 3,111

Marital status among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who are…

Income distribution Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 5,434. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 29% 9% 20% 11% 31% 5,434
$30,000-$49,999 49% 7% 15% 6% 22% 3,463
$50,000-$99,999 65% 5% 9% 3% 18% 4,612
$100,000 or more 74% 4% 5% 2% 16% 3,113

Parent of children under 18 among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who are…

Income distribution Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 5,440. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 31% 69% 5,440
$30,000-$49,999 32% 68% 3,465
$50,000-$99,999 35% 65% 4,606
$100,000 or more 38% 62% 3,107

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say they…

Income distribution Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 77% 18% 3% 1% 1% 1% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 80% 16% 2% < 1% 1% < 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 80% 16% 3% < 1% < 1% < 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 79% 17% 3% < 1% 1% < 1% 3,116

Importance of religion in one's life among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say religion is…

Income distribution Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 69% 22% 5% 3% 1% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 68% 24% 5% 2% < 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 67% 25% 6% 2% < 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 64% 28% 6% 2% < 1% 3,116

Attendance at religious services among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who attend religious services…

Income distribution At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 42% 34% 23% 1% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 46% 35% 19% < 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 50% 34% 16% < 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 45% 39% 15% < 1% 3,116

Frequency of prayer among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who pray…

Income distribution At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 69% 17% 5% 9% 1% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 68% 16% 5% 11% < 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 68% 17% 5% 9% < 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 66% 18% 7% 9% < 1% 3,116

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who attend prayer group…

Income distribution At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 33% 13% 9% 45% 1% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 32% 11% 10% 46% < 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 32% 12% 11% 45% < 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 27% 12% 11% 50% < 1% 3,116

Frequency of meditation among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who meditate…

Income distribution At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 47% 8% 4% 39% 2% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 45% 8% 3% 44% 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 40% 8% 4% 48% 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 36% 9% 4% 50% 1% 3,116

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Income distribution At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 64% 14% 8% 13% 1% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 66% 15% 8% 11% 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 65% 16% 10% 9% 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 64% 15% 11% 9% 1% 3,116

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Income distribution At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 46% 14% 12% 26% 2% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 43% 17% 12% 27% 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 42% 18% 14% 25% 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 40% 19% 15% 25% 1% 3,116

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Income distribution Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 43% 7% 41% 6% 2% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 46% 6% 40% 6% 2% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 48% 6% 40% 4% 2% 4,613
$100,000 or more 44% 9% 40% 6% 2% 3,116

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say…

Income distribution There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 32% 65% 1% 1% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 39% 59% 1% 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 46% 52% 1% < 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 49% 50% 1% < 1% 3,116

Frequency of reading scripture among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who read scripture…

Income distribution At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 49% 12% 8% 30% 1% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 47% 13% 9% 31% < 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 45% 12% 10% 33% < 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 39% 12% 11% 38% < 1% 3,116

Interpreting scripture among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say the holy scripture is…

Income distribution Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 51% 26% 3% 14% 6% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 45% 33% 3% 15% 5% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 37% 39% 3% 16% 5% 4,613
$100,000 or more 30% 43% 3% 19% 5% 3,116

Belief in Heaven among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who …in heaven

Income distribution Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 95% 3% 2% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 96% 2% 2% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 95% 2% 3% 4,613
$100,000 or more 95% 3% 3% 3,116

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who identify as…

Income distribution Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 31% 20% 49% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 44% 15% 41% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 56% 11% 33% 4,613
$100,000 or more 62% 9% 29% 3,116

Political ideology among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who are…

Income distribution Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 38% 33% 22% 8% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 45% 33% 18% 4% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 51% 33% 13% 3% 4,613
$100,000 or more 52% 32% 14% 2% 3,116

Views about size of government among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who would rather have…

Income distribution Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 37% 58% 2% 3% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 57% 38% 2% 3% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 68% 28% 2% 3% 4,613
$100,000 or more 73% 24% 1% 1% 3,116

Views about government aid to the poor among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say government aid to the poor…

Income distribution Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 37% 57% 4% 2% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 51% 44% 4% 1% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 61% 35% 3% 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 64% 32% 2% 1% 3,116

Views about abortion among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say abortion should be…

Income distribution Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 42% 54% 4% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 43% 54% 3% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 44% 54% 3% 4,613
$100,000 or more 46% 51% 3% 3,116

Views about homosexuality among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say homosexuality…

Income distribution Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 53% 40% 4% 3% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 51% 42% 4% 2% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 50% 43% 4% 3% 4,613
$100,000 or more 56% 37% 4% 3% 3,116

Views about same-sex marriage among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who …same-sex marriage

Income distribution Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 42% 50% 8% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 41% 52% 6% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 41% 54% 6% 4,613
$100,000 or more 45% 49% 7% 3,116

Views about environmental regulation among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say…

Income distribution Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 42% 52% 2% 4% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 44% 52% 2% 2% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 44% 53% 2% 1% 4,613
$100,000 or more 48% 49% 2% 1% 3,116

Views about human evolution among adults who believe in Hell by household income

% of adults who believe in Hell who say humans…

Income distribution Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,448. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Less than $30,000 20% 28% 3% 44% 5% 5,448
$30,000-$49,999 18% 30% 3% 46% 3% 3,473
$50,000-$99,999 18% 33% 2% 44% 3% 4,613
$100,000 or more 21% 33% 3% 40% 3% 3,116