Interpreting scripture among liberals

% of liberals who say the holy scripture is…

Survey year Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 8,504. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 19% 19% 1% 54% 7% 8,504
2007 20% 21% 2% 48% 9% 6,809

Learn More: Word of God; should be taken literally, Word of God; not everything taken literally, Not the word of God

Interpreting scripture among liberals by religious group

% of liberals who say the holy scripture is…

Religious tradition Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 136. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Buddhist 1% 6% < 1% 79% 13% 136
Catholic 26% 26% 2% 40% 7% 1,474
Evangelical Protestant 40% 33% 3% 16% 7% 937
Historically Black Protestant 56% 25% 2% 11% 6% 467
Jewish 3% 15% 1% 75% 7% 394
Mainline Protestant 12% 29% 1% 47% 11% 1,259
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 6% 7% < 1% 82% 4% 3,107

Learn More: Word of God; should be taken literally, Word of God; not everything taken literally, Not the word of God

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who are ages…

Interpreting scripture 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 1,214. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 17% 38% 28% 17% 1,214
Word of God; not everything taken literally 29% 34% 24% 14% 1,481
Not the word of God 31% 35% 21% 12% 5,004
Other/don't know 21% 32% 28% 19% 596

Generational cohort among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who are…

Interpreting scripture Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 1,214. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 10% 15% 30% 32% 12% 1% 1,214
Word of God; not everything taken literally 20% 16% 27% 28% 9% 1% 1,481
Not the word of God 19% 20% 27% 26% 7% 1% 5,004
Other/don't know 11% 16% 25% 32% 13% 2% 596

Gender composition among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who are…

Interpreting scripture Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 46% 54% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 40% 60% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 37% 63% 101
Not the word of God 47% 53% 5,062
Other/don't know 41% 59% 610

Racial and ethnic composition among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who identify as…

Interpreting scripture White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 1,211. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 32% 30% 3% 32% 3% 1,211
Word of God; not everything taken literally 56% 16% 5% 19% 4% 1,490
Not the word of God 72% 6% 6% 12% 4% 5,010
Other/don't know 60% 12% 7% 15% 6% 595

Immigrant status among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who are…

Interpreting scripture Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 1,195. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 32% 9% 59% 1,195
Word of God; not everything taken literally 17% 14% 69% 1,483
Not the word of God 14% 14% 71% 5,017
Other/don't know 18% 11% 71% 597

Income distribution among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who have a household income of…

Interpreting scripture Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 1,075. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 64% 21% 10% 5% 1,075
Word of God; not everything taken literally 37% 22% 25% 17% 1,364
Not the word of God 26% 18% 28% 27% 4,665
Other/don't know 40% 19% 24% 17% 521

Educational distribution among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who have completed…

Interpreting scripture High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 1,219. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 68% 24% 6% 3% 1,219
Word of God; not everything taken literally 41% 33% 15% 11% 1,501
Not the word of God 24% 30% 25% 21% 5,045
Other/don't know 32% 32% 18% 18% 603

Marital status among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who are…

Interpreting scripture Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 1,221. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 39% 8% 19% 8% 25% 1,221
Word of God; not everything taken literally 39% 8% 15% 5% 33% 1,500
Word of God; other/don't know 37% < 1% 21% 21% 22% 100
Not the word of God 41% 12% 12% 3% 32% 5,042
Other/don't know 40% 11% 14% 8% 26% 604

Parent of children under 18 among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who are…

Interpreting scripture Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 1,226. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 33% 67% 1,226
Word of God; not everything taken literally 29% 71% 1,499
Word of God; other/don't know 24% 76% 100
Not the word of God 25% 75% 5,053
Other/don't know 28% 72% 608

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say they…

Interpreting scripture Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 78% 17% 2% 2% < 1% < 1% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 68% 26% 4% < 1% 2% < 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 80% 15% < 1% 1% 2% 2% 101
Not the word of God 23% 25% 12% 1% 34% 5% 5,062
Other/don't know 54% 26% 7% 2% 6% 5% 610

Importance of religion in one's life among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say religion is…

Interpreting scripture Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 80% 15% 3% 2% < 1% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 54% 35% 7% 3% 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 71% 23% 2% 2% 2% 101
Not the word of God 14% 26% 24% 36% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 42% 35% 13% 9% 2% 610

Attendance at religious services among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who attend religious services…

Interpreting scripture At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 49% 33% 18% < 1% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 32% 45% 23% < 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 38% 38% 22% 1% 101
Not the word of God 8% 29% 63% < 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 25% 40% 33% 1% 610

Frequency of prayer among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who pray…

Interpreting scripture At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 72% 17% 4% 7% 1% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 59% 21% 7% 13% < 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 77% 9% 1% 13% < 1% 101
Not the word of God 21% 13% 8% 57% < 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 50% 18% 8% 22% 2% 610

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who attend prayer group…

Interpreting scripture At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 42% 14% 8% 36% 1% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 18% 11% 11% 60% < 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 29% 10% 11% 46% 3% 101
Not the word of God 4% 4% 4% 88% < 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 14% 10% 8% 66% 2% 610

Frequency of meditation among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who meditate…

Interpreting scripture At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 54% 8% 5% 30% 3% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 38% 9% 5% 47% 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 48% 1% 2% 42% 6% 101
Not the word of God 31% 11% 6% 51% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 42% 10% 5% 41% 3% 610

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Interpreting scripture At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 69% 11% 8% 11% 1% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 56% 16% 13% 15% < 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 71% 9% 10% 5% 5% 101
Not the word of God 43% 18% 11% 27% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 57% 15% 9% 16% 2% 610

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Interpreting scripture At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 45% 12% 12% 29% 2% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 43% 16% 14% 27% 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 37% 7% 13% 30% 12% 101
Not the word of God 53% 17% 13% 16% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 52% 16% 14% 16% 2% 610

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Interpreting scripture Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 45% 7% 38% 8% 2% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 27% 13% 50% 8% 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 39% 2% 35% 4% 20% 101
Not the word of God 5% 22% 51% 20% 2% 5,062
Other/don't know 19% 17% 46% 10% 7% 610

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say…

Interpreting scripture There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 27% 70% 1% 2% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 24% 75% 1% 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 24% 66% 1% 9% 101
Not the word of God 14% 84% 1% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 20% 75% 3% 2% 610

Frequency of reading scripture among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who read scripture…

Interpreting scripture At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 53% 12% 7% 26% 1% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 31% 14% 12% 42% < 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 46% 9% 11% 33% < 1% 101
Not the word of God 7% 6% 7% 80% < 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 27% 12% 10% 48% 2% 610

Belief in Heaven among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who …in heaven

Interpreting scripture Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 94% 4% 2% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 87% 10% 4% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 78% 10% 13% 101
Not the word of God 32% 61% 8% 5,062
Other/don't know 59% 23% 18% 610

Belief in Hell among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who …in hell

Interpreting scripture Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 79% 15% 6% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 64% 30% 6% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 63% 17% 20% 101
Not the word of God 19% 75% 6% 5,062
Other/don't know 38% 45% 17% 610

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who identify as…

Interpreting scripture Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 20% 21% 59% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 15% 16% 68% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 5% 35% 60% 101
Not the word of God 7% 11% 82% 5,062
Other/don't know 11% 23% 65% 610

Views about size of government among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who would rather have…

Interpreting scripture Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 23% 72% 2% 3% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 31% 63% 2% 3% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 24% 64% 5% 7% 101
Not the word of God 29% 64% 4% 3% 5,062
Other/don't know 29% 52% 10% 9% 610

Views about government aid to the poor among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say government aid to the poor…

Interpreting scripture Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 35% 59% 3% 3% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 30% 67% 2% 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 35% 57% 4% 4% 101
Not the word of God 18% 79% 2% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 21% 65% 8% 5% 610

Views about abortion among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say abortion should be…

Interpreting scripture Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 42% 53% 5% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 67% 31% 2% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 55% 34% 11% 101
Not the word of God 87% 11% 2% 5,062
Other/don't know 67% 24% 8% 610

Views about homosexuality among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say homosexuality…

Interpreting scripture Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 49% 43% 4% 4% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 79% 16% 3% 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 47% 29% 9% 15% 101
Not the word of God 93% 5% 1% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 78% 13% 6% 3% 610

Views about same-sex marriage among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who …same-sex marriage

Interpreting scripture Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 39% 52% 9% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 76% 19% 5% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 41% 39% 20% 101
Not the word of God 92% 6% 2% 5,062
Other/don't know 74% 16% 10% 610

Views about environmental regulation among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say…

Interpreting scripture Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 40% 54% 1% 5% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 23% 75% 1% 1% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 27% 47% 3% 23% 101
Not the word of God 13% 85% 1% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 18% 71% 5% 6% 610

Views about human evolution among liberals by interpretation of scripture

% of liberals who say humans…

Interpreting scripture Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Word of God; should be taken literally 18% 27% 2% 48% 5% 1,228
Word of God; not everything taken literally 29% 39% 2% 27% 3% 1,503
Word of God; other/don't know 16% 20% 11% 29% 24% 101
Not the word of God 74% 13% 4% 7% 1% 5,062
Other/don't know 36% 25% 13% 19% 7% 610