Racial and ethnic composition among adults who do not believe in Hell by religious group

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who identify as…

Religious tradition White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 191. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Buddhist 58% 4% 13% 14% 11% 191
Catholic 61% 2% 2% 33% 1% 2,049
Evangelical Protestant 76% 7% 2% 11% 5% 945
Hindu 3% 4% 91% < 1% 2% 116
Historically Black Protestant 1% 93% < 1% 5% 1% 225
Jehovah's Witness 36% 24% < 1% 34% 6% 213
Jewish 93% 2% 1% 2% 2% 630
Mainline Protestant 90% 2% 1% 5% 2% 2,034
Mormon 87% < 1% 1% 5% 7% 223
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 73% 6% 6% 12% 4% 5,193

Learn More: White, Black, Asian, Latino, Other/Mixed

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are ages…

Racial and ethnic composition 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,585. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 21% 31% 26% 21% 9,585
Black 34% 35% 21% 10% 679
Asian 43% 41% 11% 5% 410
Latino 32% 40% 19% 9% 1,257
Other/Mixed 31% 38% 23% 8% 508

Generational cohort among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Racial and ethnic composition Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,585. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 13% 14% 25% 33% 13% 1% 9,585
Black 19% 23% 26% 24% 7% 1% 679
Asian 25% 27% 32% 12% 3% 1% 410
Latino 22% 20% 31% 21% 6% 1% 1,257
Other/Mixed 21% 19% 29% 25% 5% < 1% 508

Gender composition among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Racial and ethnic composition Men Women Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 51% 49% 9,746
Black 46% 54% 692
Asian 58% 42% 418
Latino 51% 49% 1,280
Other/Mixed 50% 50% 516

Immigrant status among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Racial and ethnic composition Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,687. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 6% 10% 84% 9,687
Black 10% 7% 83% 676
Asian 69% 23% 8% 411
Latino 51% 26% 23% 1,251
Other/Mixed 7% 16% 77% 510

Income distribution among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who have a household income of…

Racial and ethnic composition Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 8,728. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 23% 18% 31% 28% 8,728
Black 42% 22% 23% 13% 626
Asian 20% 22% 24% 33% 373
Latino 48% 23% 19% 11% 1,108
Other/Mixed 39% 20% 22% 19% 473

Educational distribution among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who have completed…

Racial and ethnic composition High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,715. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 29% 30% 23% 18% 9,715
Black 43% 35% 14% 8% 689
Asian 20% 25% 26% 29% 415
Latino 54% 27% 13% 6% 1,267
Other/Mixed 31% 39% 18% 12% 514

Marital status among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Racial and ethnic composition Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 49% 9% 12% 6% 23% 9,710
Black 28% 10% 15% 5% 42% 691
Asian 47% 5% 3% 2% 43% 416
Latino 41% 12% 13% 3% 32% 1,278
Other/Mixed 34% 14% 13% 4% 35% 514

Parent of children under 18 among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Racial and ethnic composition Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,724. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 23% 77% 9,724
Black 31% 69% 690
Asian 26% 74% 418
Latino 35% 65% 1,275
Other/Mixed 26% 74% 516

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say they…

Racial and ethnic composition Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 33% 24% 10% 1% 28% 4% 9,746
Black 64% 19% 5% < 1% 10% 2% 692
Asian 26% 22% 15% < 1% 35% 2% 418
Latino 46% 25% 10% 1% 17% 1% 1,280
Other/Mixed 42% 22% 8% 1% 24% 4% 516

Importance of religion in one's life among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say religion is…

Racial and ethnic composition Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 24% 25% 21% 29% 1% 9,746
Black 51% 24% 12% 13% < 1% 692
Asian 18% 26% 28% 27% 1% 418
Latino 40% 28% 13% 18% 1% 1,280
Other/Mixed 29% 27% 19% 25% < 1% 516

Attendance at religious services among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who attend religious services…

Racial and ethnic composition At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 16% 31% 53% < 1% 9,746
Black 30% 38% 32% < 1% 692
Asian 13% 39% 47% 1% 418
Latino 25% 35% 39% < 1% 1,280
Other/Mixed 19% 28% 53% < 1% 516

Frequency of prayer among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who pray…

Racial and ethnic composition At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 29% 14% 6% 50% 1% 9,746
Black 57% 13% 6% 23% 1% 692
Asian 27% 9% 10% 54% < 1% 418
Latino 44% 14% 8% 34% 1% 1,280
Other/Mixed 43% 11% 6% 41% < 1% 516

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who attend prayer group…

Racial and ethnic composition At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 9% 4% 5% 81% < 1% 9,746
Black 25% 10% 11% 54% < 1% 692
Asian 10% 6% 10% 74% < 1% 418
Latino 19% 7% 6% 66% < 1% 1,280
Other/Mixed 15% 7% 7% 71% 1% 516

Frequency of meditation among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who meditate…

Racial and ethnic composition At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 31% 10% 5% 52% 1% 9,746
Black 48% 8% 5% 37% 1% 692
Asian 24% 10% 7% 56% 3% 418
Latino 44% 11% 4% 39% 2% 1,280
Other/Mixed 47% 9% 4% 39% < 1% 516

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Racial and ethnic composition At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 45% 17% 11% 27% 1% 9,746
Black 60% 16% 8% 14% 2% 692
Asian 37% 17% 18% 27% 1% 418
Latino 57% 12% 10% 19% 1% 1,280
Other/Mixed 58% 17% 8% 16% 1% 516

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Racial and ethnic composition At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 48% 16% 13% 21% 1% 9,746
Black 48% 13% 10% 26% 2% 692
Asian 34% 16% 25% 24% 1% 418
Latino 52% 13% 12% 22% 1% 1,280
Other/Mixed 58% 16% 10% 15% < 1% 516

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Racial and ethnic composition Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 12% 17% 54% 15% 2% 9,746
Black 23% 14% 51% 10% 1% 692
Asian 5% 21% 50% 23% 1% 418
Latino 23% 14% 44% 17% 2% 1,280
Other/Mixed 16% 17% 49% 16% 3% 516

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say…

Racial and ethnic composition There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 23% 75% 1% 1% 9,746
Black 23% 75% 1% 1% 692
Asian 14% 85% 1% < 1% 418
Latino 22% 75% 2% 2% 1,280
Other/Mixed 22% 76% 1% < 1% 516

Frequency of reading scripture among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who read scripture…

Racial and ethnic composition At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 14% 7% 7% 72% 1% 9,746
Black 39% 13% 8% 39% 1% 692
Asian 11% 6% 9% 75% < 1% 418
Latino 26% 10% 7% 56% 1% 1,280
Other/Mixed 26% 6% 9% 58% < 1% 516

Interpreting scripture among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say the holy scripture is…

Racial and ethnic composition Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 7% 18% 1% 68% 6% 9,746
Black 28% 24% 1% 40% 8% 692
Asian 7% 9% < 1% 74% 9% 418
Latino 23% 19% 1% 51% 6% 1,280
Other/Mixed 8% 18% 2% 63% 9% 516

Belief in Heaven among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who …in heaven

Racial and ethnic composition Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 36% 58% 6% 9,746
Black 56% 40% 4% 692
Asian 28% 70% 2% 418
Latino 43% 52% 5% 1,280
Other/Mixed 36% 56% 8% 516

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who identify as…

Racial and ethnic composition Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 30% 16% 54% 9,746
Black 9% 20% 71% 692
Asian 18% 23% 60% 418
Latino 17% 31% 51% 1,280
Other/Mixed 21% 26% 52% 516

Political ideology among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Racial and ethnic composition Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 21% 36% 38% 5% 9,746
Black 25% 30% 34% 11% 692
Asian 13% 39% 41% 7% 418
Latino 21% 34% 36% 9% 1,280
Other/Mixed 18% 36% 37% 9% 516

Views about size of government among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who would rather have…

Racial and ethnic composition Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 53% 40% 3% 4% 9,746
Black 28% 64% 3% 4% 692
Asian 40% 56% 2% 2% 418
Latino 32% 62% 3% 3% 1,280
Other/Mixed 45% 45% 5% 5% 516

Views about government aid to the poor among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say government aid to the poor…

Racial and ethnic composition Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 37% 59% 3% 1% 9,746
Black 27% 67% 4% 3% 692
Asian 33% 62% 4% 2% 418
Latino 37% 57% 4% 2% 1,280
Other/Mixed 29% 65% 4% 2% 516

Views about abortion among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say abortion should be…

Racial and ethnic composition Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 77% 20% 3% 9,746
Black 61% 35% 4% 692
Asian 73% 23% 4% 418
Latino 55% 41% 4% 1,280
Other/Mixed 74% 24% 3% 516

Views about homosexuality among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say homosexuality…

Racial and ethnic composition Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 83% 13% 3% 2% 9,746
Black 68% 26% 4% 3% 692
Asian 81% 13% 2% 4% 418
Latino 75% 19% 3% 3% 1,280
Other/Mixed 77% 17% 3% 3% 516

Views about same-sex marriage among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who …same-sex marriage

Racial and ethnic composition Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 78% 17% 5% 9,746
Black 62% 31% 7% 692
Asian 78% 16% 6% 418
Latino 67% 26% 7% 1,280
Other/Mixed 74% 21% 6% 516

Views about environmental regulation among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say…

Racial and ethnic composition Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 27% 69% 2% 2% 9,746
Black 29% 65% 2% 3% 692
Asian 24% 69% 2% 5% 418
Latino 29% 64% 2% 5% 1,280
Other/Mixed 21% 74% 4% 2% 516

Views about human evolution among adults who do not believe in Hell by race/ethnicity

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say humans…

Racial and ethnic composition Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Note: Whites, blacks, Asians and those in the other/mixed category include only those who are not Latinos. Latinos include people of all races. Sample size = 9,746. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
White 61% 17% 4% 15% 2% 9,746
Black 34% 26% 3% 33% 3% 692
Asian 65% 9% 6% 16% 3% 418
Latino 42% 21% 4% 29% 4% 1,280
Other/Mixed 54% 17% 3% 23% 2% 516