DemographicInformation

Age distribution among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who are ages…

Survey year 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 322. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 9% 25% 29% 37% 322
2007 9% 31% 29% 31% 429

Generational cohort among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who are…

Survey year Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 322. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 7% 5% 22% 37% 24% 5% 322
2007 < 1% 7% 20% 39% 24% 10% 429

Gender composition among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who are…

Survey year Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 44% 56% 331
2007 44% 56% 434

Racial and ethnic composition among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who identify as…

Survey year White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 329. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 87% 5% 4% 4% 1% 329
2007 92% 2% 2% 2% 1% 433

Immigrant status among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who are…

Survey year Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 330. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 10% 4% 85% 330
2007 5% 6% 89% 432

Income distribution among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who have a household income of…

Survey year Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 284. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 25% 17% 29% 30% 284
2007 18% 21% 35% 26% 366

Educational distribution among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who have completed…

Survey year High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 329. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 30% 27% 22% 22% 329

Marital status among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who are…

Survey year Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 65% 2% 9% 12% 12% 331
2007 60% 4% 10% 15% 11% 433

Parent of children under 18 among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who are…

Survey year Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 330. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 20% 80% 330
2007 26% 74% 433

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say they…

Survey year Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 70% 26% 2% 2% < 1% < 1% 331
2007 82% 16% 1% < 1% < 1% 1% 434

Importance of religion in one's life among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say religion is…

Survey year Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 69% 27% 4% 1% < 1% 331
2007 66% 29% 4% 1% < 1% 434

Attendance at religious services among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who attend religious services…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 51% 37% 12% < 1% 331
2007 57% 33% 9% 1% 434

Frequency of prayer among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who pray…

Survey year At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 64% 25% 5% 6% < 1% 331
2007 67% 21% 4% 7% < 1% 434

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who attend prayer group…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 28% 15% 11% 46% < 1% 331
2007 25% 16% 13% 45% < 1% 434

Frequency of meditation among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who meditate…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 39% 9% 4% 47% 1% 331
2007 44% 7% 6% 41% 2% 434

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 67% 13% 11% 8% 1% 331
2007 57% 14% 15% 12% 2% 434

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 50% 16% 13% 20% 1% 331
2007 40% 16% 19% 21% 3% 434

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Survey year Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 41% 10% 40% 6% 3% 331
2007 36% 7% 53% 2% 2% 434

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say…

Survey year There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 35% 61% 2% 2% 331

Frequency of reading scripture among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who read scripture…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 41% 17% 10% 32% < 1% 331
2007 35% 20% 14% 31% 1% 434

Interpreting scripture among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say the holy scripture is…

Survey year Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 28% 43% 2% 18% 9% 331
2007 27% 46% 3% 17% 7% 434

Belief in Hell among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who …in hell

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 63% 28% 9% 331
2007 68% 23% 9% 434

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who identify as…

Survey year Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 45% 10% 45% 331
2007 54% 7% 40% 434

Political ideology among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who are…

Survey year Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 40% 36% 21% 2% 331
2007 38% 46% 14% 1% 434

Views about size of government among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who would rather have…

Survey year Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 59% 36% 2% 4% 331
2007 59% 32% 5% 5% 434

Views about government aid to the poor among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say government aid to the poor…

Survey year Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 40% 54% 3% 2% 331

Views about abortion among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say abortion should be…

Survey year Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 65% 32% 4% 331
2007 63% 34% 3% 434

Views about homosexuality among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say homosexuality…

Survey year Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 63% 28% 4% 5% 331
2007 49% 41% 6% 4% 434

Views about same-sex marriage among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who …same-sex marriage

Survey year Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 55% 38% 7% 331

Views about environmental regulation among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say…

Survey year Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 40% 55% 2% 2% 331
2007 27% 68% 1% 4% 434

Views about human evolution among who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA)

% of who believe in Heaven who are Presbyterian Church (USA) who say humans…

Survey year Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 331. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 26% 37% 3% 30% 5% 331