Views about government aid to the poor among atheists

% of atheists who say government aid to the poor…

Survey year Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,098. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 23% 74% 3% 1% 1,098

Learn More: Does more harm than good, Does more good than harm

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who are ages…

Views about government aid to the poor 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 225. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 38% 40% 15% 7% 225
Does more good than harm 41% 36% 14% 9% 816

Generational cohort among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who are…

Views about government aid to the poor Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 225. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 29% 21% 28% 18% 3% 1% 225
Does more good than harm 28% 21% 27% 18% 5% < 1% 816

Gender composition among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who are…

Views about government aid to the poor Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 74% 26% 229
Does more good than harm 66% 34% 825

Racial and ethnic composition among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who identify as…

Views about government aid to the poor White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 226. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 82% 2% 6% 9% 1% 226
Does more good than harm 77% 3% 7% 10% 3% 818

Immigrant status among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who are…

Views about government aid to the poor Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 226. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 12% 9% 79% 226
Does more good than harm 13% 15% 72% 817

Income distribution among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who have a household income of…

Views about government aid to the poor Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 207. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 17% 21% 33% 29% 207
Does more good than harm 26% 17% 26% 31% 767

Educational distribution among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who have completed…

Views about government aid to the poor High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 40% 30% 21% 9% 228
Does more good than harm 22% 32% 28% 18% 825

Marital status among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who are…

Views about government aid to the poor Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 227. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 37% 10% 8% 1% 44% 227
Does more good than harm 36% 14% 10% 2% 39% 822

Parent of children under 18 among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who are…

Views about government aid to the poor Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 228. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 23% 77% 228
Does more good than harm 22% 78% 825

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say they…

Views about government aid to the poor Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 2% 2% 3% < 1% 90% 2% 229
Does more good than harm 2% 3% 1% < 1% 92% < 1% 825

Importance of religion in one's life among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say religion is…

Views about government aid to the poor Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 2% 4% 9% 85% < 1% 229
Does more good than harm 2% 5% 11% 82% < 1% 825

Attendance at religious services among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who attend religious services…

Views about government aid to the poor At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 2% 10% 88% < 1% 229
Does more good than harm 1% 10% 89% < 1% 825

Frequency of prayer among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who pray…

Views about government aid to the poor At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 1% 1% < 1% 98% < 1% 229
Does more good than harm 1% 1% 1% 97% < 1% 825

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who attend prayer group…

Views about government aid to the poor At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 1% 1% 2% 96% < 1% 229
Does more good than harm 1% < 1% 1% 98% < 1% 825

Frequency of meditation among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who meditate…

Views about government aid to the poor At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 18% 6% 3% 72% 1% 229
Does more good than harm 18% 9% 5% 67% < 1% 825

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Views about government aid to the poor At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 32% 10% 6% 50% 2% 229
Does more good than harm 31% 15% 9% 44% 2% 825

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Views about government aid to the poor At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 51% 15% 10% 24% 1% 229
Does more good than harm 55% 17% 12% 16% 1% 825

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Views about government aid to the poor Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 1% 17% 54% 28% < 1% 229
Does more good than harm 1% 23% 41% 34% 2% 825

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say…

Views about government aid to the poor There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 25% 75% < 1% < 1% 229
Does more good than harm 13% 86% < 1% 1% 825

Frequency of reading scripture among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who read scripture…

Views about government aid to the poor At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 5% 1% 4% 91% < 1% 229
Does more good than harm 2% 4% 5% 89% < 1% 825

Interpreting scripture among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say the holy scripture is…

Views about government aid to the poor Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 1% 1% < 1% 95% 4% 229
Does more good than harm 1% 1% < 1% 97% 1% 825

Belief in Heaven among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who …in heaven

Views about government aid to the poor Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 6% 93% 1% 229
Does more good than harm 4% 95% 1% 825

Belief in Hell among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who …in hell

Views about government aid to the poor Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 4% 95% 1% 229
Does more good than harm 3% 96% 1% 825

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who identify as…

Views about government aid to the poor Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 39% 28% 33% 229
Does more good than harm 7% 12% 81% 825

Political ideology among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who are…

Views about government aid to the poor Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 24% 45% 23% 9% 229
Does more good than harm 6% 24% 68% 3% 825

Views about size of government among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who would rather have…

Views about government aid to the poor Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 82% 15% 2% 1% 229
Does more good than harm 28% 66% 4% 3% 825

Views about abortion among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say abortion should be…

Views about government aid to the poor Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 79% 18% 3% 229
Does more good than harm 90% 9% 1% 825

Views about homosexuality among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say homosexuality…

Views about government aid to the poor Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 86% 10% 2% 2% 229
Does more good than harm 97% 2% 1% < 1% 825

Views about same-sex marriage among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who …same-sex marriage

Views about government aid to the poor Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 84% 10% 6% 229
Does more good than harm 95% 3% 2% 825

Views about environmental regulation among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say…

Views about government aid to the poor Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 43% 54% 3% 1% 229
Does more good than harm 10% 87% 2% 2% 825

Views about human evolution among atheists by views about government aid to the poor

% of atheists who say humans…

Views about government aid to the poor Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 229. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Does more harm than good 88% 2% 2% 8% < 1% 229
Does more good than harm 92% 2% 1% 4% < 1% 825