DemographicInformation

Age distribution among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who are ages…

Survey year 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 146. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 29% 41% 21% 9% 146

Generational cohort among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who are…

Survey year Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 146. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 15% 22% 33% 25% 5% < 1% 146

Gender composition among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who are…

Survey year Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 51% 49% 148

Racial and ethnic composition among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who identify as…

Survey year White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 146. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 86% < 1% 1% 9% 3% 146

Immigrant status among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who are…

Survey year Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 147. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 3% 8% 89% 147

Income distribution among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who have a household income of…

Survey year Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 138. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 21% 22% 37% 19% 138

Educational distribution among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who have completed…

Survey year High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 22% 43% 25% 10% 148

Marital status among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who are…

Survey year Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 71% 2% 5% 2% 20% 148

Parent of children under 18 among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who are…

Survey year Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 145. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 46% 54% 145

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say they…

Survey year Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 90% 8% < 1% < 1% < 1% 1% 148

Importance of religion in one's life among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say religion is…

Survey year Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 84% 13% 3% < 1% < 1% 148

Attendance at religious services among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who attend religious services…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 84% 10% 7% < 1% 148

Frequency of prayer among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who pray…

Survey year At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 88% 8% 1% 3% < 1% 148

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who attend prayer group…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 81% 3% 2% 13% < 1% 148

Frequency of meditation among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who meditate…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 61% 16% < 1% 21% 2% 148

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 84% 8% 1% 5% 1% 148

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Survey year Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 72% 5% 19% 2% 3% 148

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say…

Survey year There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 65% 31% 4% < 1% 148

Frequency of reading scripture among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who read scripture…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 80% 8% 4% 8% 1% 148

Interpreting scripture among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say the holy scripture is…

Survey year Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 26% 62% 5% 3% 4% 148

Belief in Heaven among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who …in heaven

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 97% < 1% 3% 148

Belief in Hell among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who …in hell

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 64% 28% 8% 148

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who identify as…

Survey year Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 85% 6% 9% 148

Political ideology among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who are…

Survey year Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 66% 25% 6% 3% 148

Views about size of government among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who would rather have…

Survey year Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 81% 17% < 1% 2% 148

Views about government aid to the poor among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say government aid to the poor…

Survey year Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 70% 27% 3% 1% 148

Views about abortion among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say abortion should be…

Survey year Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 16% 81% 4% 148

Views about homosexuality among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say homosexuality…

Survey year Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 32% 62% 1% 4% 148

Views about same-sex marriage among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who …same-sex marriage

Survey year Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 25% 70% 5% 148

Views about environmental regulation among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say…

Survey year Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 62% 35% 1% 3% 148

Views about human evolution among adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon

% of adults who feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe once or twice a month who are Mormon who say humans…

Survey year Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 148. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 4% 37% 1% 49% 9% 148