Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults who do not believe in Heaven

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Survey year Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 7,973. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 9% 19% 51% 19% 2% 7,973
2007 11% 19% 57% 10% 3% 6,275

Learn More: Religion, Philosophy/reason, Common sense, Science

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults who do not believe in Heaven by religious group

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Religious tradition Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 151. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Buddhist 3% 36% 44% 12% 6% 151
Catholic 13% 12% 52% 21% 2% 709
Evangelical Protestant 57% 7% 27% 6% 3% 503
Jewish 5% 21% 53% 18% 3% 461
Mainline Protestant 12% 19% 56% 11% 2% 861
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 2% 21% 54% 22% 1% 4,429

Learn More: Religion, Philosophy/reason, Common sense, Science

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who are ages…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 670. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 17% 32% 35% 17% 670
Philosophy/reason 33% 35% 21% 12% 1,589
Common sense 27% 35% 22% 16% 3,858
Science 31% 37% 18% 13% 1,545
Don't know 20% 25% 28% 27% 192

Generational cohort among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 670. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 9% 12% 28% 40% 9% 2% 670
Philosophy/reason 22% 19% 27% 25% 7% 1% 1,589
Common sense 17% 19% 26% 27% 10% 1% 3,858
Science 20% 20% 29% 22% 8% 1% 1,545
Don't know 10% 14% 21% 33% 19% 4% 192

Gender composition among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 43% 57% 685
Philosophy/reason 62% 38% 1,605
Common sense 58% 42% 3,910
Science 62% 38% 1,568
Don't know 60% 40% 205

Racial and ethnic composition among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who identify as…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 670. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 60% 11% 2% 23% 4% 670
Philosophy/reason 74% 4% 6% 11% 4% 1,581
Common sense 74% 5% 6% 12% 3% 3,859
Science 70% 4% 8% 15% 4% 1,544
Don't know 69% 6% 3% 15% 6% 194

Immigrant status among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 682. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 21% 9% 70% 682
Philosophy/reason 13% 15% 72% 1,592
Common sense 14% 12% 74% 3,866
Science 22% 14% 63% 1,551
Don't know 20% 14% 66% 201

Income distribution among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who have a household income of…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 596. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 35% 22% 26% 17% 596
Philosophy/reason 22% 17% 30% 30% 1,476
Common sense 25% 20% 29% 26% 3,520
Science 24% 16% 28% 31% 1,428
Don't know 25% 21% 29% 24% 155

Educational distribution among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who have completed…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 679. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 42% 29% 16% 13% 679
Philosophy/reason 19% 30% 27% 23% 1,603
Common sense 33% 31% 22% 14% 3,894
Science 24% 26% 27% 24% 1,556
Don't know 19% 31% 26% 24% 203

Marital status among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 682. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 56% 5% 13% 6% 20% 682
Philosophy/reason 41% 10% 14% 3% 33% 1,600
Common sense 43% 11% 12% 4% 29% 3,900
Science 45% 10% 9% 2% 33% 1,556
Don't know 48% 7% 13% 7% 25% 202

Parent of children under 18 among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 683. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 29% 71% 683
Philosophy/reason 21% 79% 1,602
Common sense 25% 75% 3,898
Science 27% 73% 1,565
Don't know 19% 81% 202

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say they…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 78% 12% 4% < 1% 4% 2% 685
Philosophy/reason 16% 20% 15% 1% 43% 5% 1,605
Common sense 19% 22% 13% 1% 40% 5% 3,910
Science 10% 17% 11% < 1% 57% 4% 1,568
Don't know 31% 17% 11% 4% 26% 12% 205

Importance of religion in one's life among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say religion is…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 78% 14% 4% 3% 1% 685
Philosophy/reason 10% 21% 27% 41% 1% 1,605
Common sense 11% 21% 27% 41% 1% 3,910
Science 8% 17% 21% 53% < 1% 1,568
Don't know 29% 19% 18% 29% 5% 205

Attendance at religious services among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who attend religious services…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 61% 24% 14% < 1% 685
Philosophy/reason 6% 28% 66% < 1% 1,605
Common sense 6% 26% 67% < 1% 3,910
Science 5% 25% 70% < 1% 1,568
Don't know 19% 26% 51% 4% 205

Frequency of prayer among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who pray…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 76% 10% 3% 10% 1% 685
Philosophy/reason 16% 11% 6% 67% < 1% 1,605
Common sense 16% 9% 6% 68% 1% 3,910
Science 11% 8% 5% 76% < 1% 1,568
Don't know 29% 8% 8% 50% 5% 205

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who attend prayer group…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 50% 11% 8% 31% 1% 685
Philosophy/reason 5% 4% 5% 86% < 1% 1,605
Common sense 4% 3% 3% 90% < 1% 3,910
Science 3% 2% 4% 91% < 1% 1,568
Don't know 17% 5% 6% 69% 3% 205

Frequency of meditation among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who meditate…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 53% 7% 3% 32% 4% 685
Philosophy/reason 36% 14% 6% 43% 1% 1,605
Common sense 28% 9% 6% 57% 1% 3,910
Science 24% 10% 6% 59% 1% 1,568
Don't know 48% 8% 4% 36% 4% 205

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 75% 8% 5% 10% 2% 685
Philosophy/reason 45% 19% 11% 24% 1% 1,605
Common sense 37% 15% 11% 36% 1% 3,910
Science 37% 17% 11% 34% 2% 1,568
Don't know 53% 14% 8% 19% 6% 205

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 54% 13% 12% 19% 2% 685
Philosophy/reason 60% 16% 12% 11% < 1% 1,605
Common sense 44% 16% 15% 24% 1% 3,910
Science 52% 17% 12% 18% < 1% 1,568
Don't know 62% 11% 10% 11% 7% 205

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 53% 44% 1% 2% 685
Philosophy/reason 19% 79% 1% 1% 1,605
Common sense 19% 79% 1% 1% 3,910
Science 18% 81% < 1% 1% 1,568
Don't know 24% 64% 10% 2% 205

Frequency of reading scripture among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who read scripture…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 63% 9% 5% 21% 1% 685
Philosophy/reason 8% 7% 8% 76% 1% 1,605
Common sense 7% 4% 6% 82% < 1% 3,910
Science 4% 5% 7% 85% < 1% 1,568
Don't know 21% 5% 9% 65% 1% 205

Interpreting scripture among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say the holy scripture is…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 46% 28% 3% 19% 5% 685
Philosophy/reason 2% 5% < 1% 90% 4% 1,605
Common sense 3% 7% 1% 84% 5% 3,910
Science 3% 5% < 1% 89% 4% 1,568
Don't know 6% 9% 2% 60% 22% 205

Belief in Hell among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who …in hell

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 31% 66% 3% 685
Philosophy/reason 3% 96% 1% 1,605
Common sense 5% 94% 1% 3,910
Science 4% 96% 1% 1,568
Don't know 7% 85% 7% 205

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who identify as…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 43% 25% 32% 685
Philosophy/reason 16% 16% 68% 1,605
Common sense 26% 18% 56% 3,910
Science 17% 16% 67% 1,568
Don't know 14% 33% 53% 205

Political ideology among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 48% 23% 19% 11% 685
Philosophy/reason 9% 32% 56% 3% 1,605
Common sense 18% 36% 41% 6% 3,910
Science 13% 33% 51% 3% 1,568
Don't know 13% 32% 36% 19% 205

Views about size of government among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who would rather have…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 54% 41% 3% 2% 685
Philosophy/reason 42% 51% 4% 3% 1,605
Common sense 51% 42% 4% 3% 3,910
Science 40% 54% 3% 2% 1,568
Don't know 33% 37% 9% 21% 205

Views about government aid to the poor among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say government aid to the poor…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 49% 48% 2% 1% 685
Philosophy/reason 25% 72% 3% < 1% 1,605
Common sense 37% 58% 3% 2% 3,910
Science 27% 70% 3% 1% 1,568
Don't know 17% 58% 16% 8% 205

Views about abortion among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say abortion should be…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 33% 64% 3% 685
Philosophy/reason 86% 12% 2% 1,605
Common sense 80% 17% 3% 3,910
Science 83% 14% 3% 1,568
Don't know 68% 16% 16% 205

Views about homosexuality among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say homosexuality…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 41% 54% 3% 3% 685
Philosophy/reason 92% 4% 3% 1% 1,605
Common sense 85% 11% 2% 2% 3,910
Science 89% 8% 2% 2% 1,568
Don't know 74% 10% 8% 8% 205

Views about same-sex marriage among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who …same-sex marriage

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 33% 61% 6% 685
Philosophy/reason 90% 7% 3% 1,605
Common sense 81% 14% 5% 3,910
Science 87% 10% 3% 1,568
Don't know 70% 16% 14% 205

Views about environmental regulation among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 39% 55% 2% 4% 685
Philosophy/reason 17% 79% 2% 2% 1,605
Common sense 27% 70% 2% 2% 3,910
Science 17% 79% 2% 2% 1,568
Don't know 12% 69% 12% 7% 205

Views about human evolution among adults who do not believe in Heaven by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Heaven who say humans…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 685. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 14% 20% 4% 60% 3% 685
Philosophy/reason 80% 10% 3% 6% 1% 1,605
Common sense 72% 10% 4% 12% 2% 3,910
Science 82% 8% 3% 7% 1% 1,568
Don't know 52% 13% 17% 7% 11% 205