LITTLE PORTUGAL, TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA - 2015/06/06: Islam women wearing hijab in North American city, Multicultural city celebrates together the Dundas West Festival in Little Portugal, the festival is a traditional event held every year. (Photo by Roberto Machado Noa/LightRocket via Getty Images)
Pew Research CenterApril 5, 2016

Restrictions on Women’s Religious Attire

Many countries have laws that ban or limit women from wearing religious attire in public places. By comparison, far fewer countries require women to wear particular types of attire for religious reasons.

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Pew Research CenterMarch 22, 2016

The Gender Gap in Religion Around the World

Standard lists of history’s most influential religious leaders – among them Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) – tend to be predominantly, if not exclusively, male. Many religious groups, including Roman Catholics and Orthodox Jews, allow only men to be clergy, while others, including some denominations in the evangelical Protestant tradition, have lifted that restriction only in recent decades. Yet it often appears that the ranks of the faithful are dominated by women.

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Pew Research CenterFebruary 14, 2012

Public Divided Over Birth Control Insurance Mandate

Americans who have heard about the federal rule that would require employers to provide birth control as part of their health care benefits are closely divided over whether religiously affiliated institutions should be given an exemption. Sharp divisions of opinion exist on the issue by religious affiliation, party and ideology.

Pew Research CenterFebruary 26, 2009

The Stronger Sex — Spiritually Speaking

Pew Research CenterApril 19, 2004

The Veil Controversy: International Perspectives on Religion in Public Life