June 29, 2021

Religion in India: Tolerance and Segregation

Acknowledgments

This report was produced by Pew Research Center as part of the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project, which analyzes religious change and its impact on societies around the world. Funding for the Global Religious Futures project comes from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John Templeton Foundation.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:

Research Team

Neha Sahgal, Associate Director of Research
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Jonathan Evans, Research Associate
Ariana Monique Salazar, Research Analyst
Kelsey Jo Starr, Research Analyst
Manolo Corichi, Research Assistant

Methods Team

Patrick Moynihan, Associate Director of International Research Methods
Martha McRoy, Research Methodologist
Alexandra Castillo, Research Methodologist
Clark Letterman, Senior Survey Manager

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
David Kent, Senior Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Senior Information Graphics Designer
Jeff Diamant, Senior Writer/Editor

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director of Digital
Anna Schiller, Senior Communications Manager
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer

Others at Pew Research Center who contributed to this report include Michael Dimock, James Bell, Claudia Deane, Gregory A. Smith, Conrad Hackett, Anne Fengyan Shi, Besheer Mohamed, Stephanie Kramer, Jacob Poushter, Samirah Majumdar, Laura Silver, Neil G. Ruiz, Rakesh Kochhar, Russell Maltempo, Richard Wike, Becka A. Alper, Mark Hugo Lopez, Kiana Cox, Dalia Fahmy, Cary Funk and Gracie Martinez.

Former Pew Research Center staff who contributed to this report include Scott Gardner, Stacy Pancratz, Omkar Joshi, Mark Wang, Aleksandra Sandstrom, Katayoun Kishi, Katie Simmons, Bruce Stokes, Steve Schwarzer, Danielle Cuddington, Courtney Nelson and Clara Huergo.

Pew Research Center is grateful to a panel of expert advisers who gave advice on all stages of this report: Hilal Ahmed, associate professor at the Center for the Study of Developing Societies; Sriya Iyer, university reader in economics and fellow of St. Catharine’s College at the University of Cambridge; Devesh Kapur, Starr Foundation Professor of South Asian studies at Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies; Ravinder Kaur, professor of sociology and social anthropology at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi; Ajay Verghese, assistant professor of political science at Middlebury College; and Rina Verma Williams, associate professor of political science at the University of Cincinnati. We appreciate Siddhartha Dubey, professor of journalism at Ashoka University, for advising us on strategic outreach in India. We are also grateful to the many other subject-matter experts who answered our questions about religious practices and beliefs, as well as national and religious identities in India.

Fieldwork for the survey was conducted under the direction of RTI International.

While the analysis for this report was guided by our consultations with the advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.