DemographicInformation

Age distribution among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who are ages…

Survey year 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 694. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 14% 32% 28% 27% 694
2007 12% 40% 28% 21% 900

Generational cohort among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who are…

Survey year Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 694. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 10% 7% 28% 34% 18% 2% 694
2007 < 1% 8% 29% 38% 18% 7% 900

Gender composition among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who are…

Survey year Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 45% 55% 710
2007 45% 55% 916

Racial and ethnic composition among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who identify as…

Survey year White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 701. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 94% 2% 1% 1% 2% 701
2007 96% 1% 1% 2% 1% 915

Immigrant status among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who are…

Survey year Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 705. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 3% 8% 89% 705
2007 4% 6% 90% 914

Income distribution among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who have a household income of…

Survey year Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 617. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 23% 21% 32% 24% 617
2007 23% 24% 39% 15% 755

Educational distribution among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who have completed…

Survey year High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 705. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 38% 31% 20% 12% 705

Marital status among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who are…

Survey year Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 709. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 58% 5% 11% 9% 17% 709
2007 60% 3% 12% 12% 13% 913

Parent of children under 18 among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who are…

Survey year Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 27% 73% 710
2007 33% 67% 915

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say they…

Survey year Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 69% 28% 3% 1% < 1% < 1% 710
2007 77% 21% 1% 1% < 1% < 1% 916

Importance of religion in one's life among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say religion is…

Survey year Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 51% 40% 8% 1% 1% 710
2007 55% 37% 7% 1% < 1% 916

Attendance at religious services among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who attend religious services…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 28% 51% 21% < 1% 710
2007 37% 45% 17% < 1% 916

Frequency of prayer among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who pray…

Survey year At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 51% 29% 7% 12% 1% 710
2007 54% 24% 8% 13% 1% 916

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who attend prayer group…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 13% 8% 11% 67% < 1% 710
2007 13% 12% 12% 63% < 1% 916

Frequency of meditation among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who meditate…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 28% 10% 4% 57% 1% 710
2007 30% 8% 4% 56% 2% 916

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 52% 21% 12% 14% 1% 710
2007 44% 19% 16% 17% 4% 916

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 39% 19% 13% 28% 1% 710
2007 32% 16% 19% 30% 4% 916

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Survey year Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 30% 7% 55% 6% 1% 710
2007 23% 8% 62% 4% 2% 916

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say…

Survey year There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 30% 69% 1% 1% 710

Frequency of reading scripture among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who read scripture…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 22% 13% 16% 50% < 1% 710
2007 26% 13% 11% 50% 1% 916

Interpreting scripture among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say the holy scripture is…

Survey year Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 20% 44% 2% 26% 8% 710
2007 24% 44% 3% 22% 7% 916

Belief in Hell among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who …in hell

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 68% 24% 8% 710
2007 69% 21% 9% 916

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who identify as…

Survey year Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 46% 13% 41% 710
2007 41% 13% 46% 916

Political ideology among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who are…

Survey year Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 37% 38% 21% 4% 710
2007 38% 43% 16% 4% 916

Views about size of government among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who would rather have…

Survey year Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 65% 28% 3% 3% 710
2007 53% 35% 5% 7% 916

Views about government aid to the poor among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say government aid to the poor…

Survey year Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 50% 44% 4% 2% 710

Views about abortion among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say abortion should be…

Survey year Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 61% 36% 3% 710
2007 64% 31% 6% 916

Views about homosexuality among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say homosexuality…

Survey year Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 69% 24% 4% 3% 710
2007 58% 32% 6% 4% 916

Views about same-sex marriage among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who …same-sex marriage

Survey year Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 59% 32% 9% 710

Views about environmental regulation among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say…

Survey year Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 39% 57% 2% 2% 710
2007 26% 67% 3% 4% 916

Views about human evolution among lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven

% of lutherans in the Mainline Tradition who believe in Heaven who say humans…

Survey year Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 710. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 23% 39% 4% 30% 4% 710