Belief in Heaven among independents and those who don't lean to either party

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who …in heaven

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 5,658. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 69% 21% 10% 5,658
2007 69% 18% 13% 5,770

Learn More: Believe, Don't believe

Belief in Heaven among independents and those who don't lean to either party by religious group

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who …in heaven

Religious tradition Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Catholic 81% 11% 8% 1,158
Evangelical Protestant 88% 5% 7% 1,230
Historically Black Protestant 92% 4% 4% 184
Jehovah's Witness 45% 40% 15% 188
Mainline Protestant 78% 11% 11% 822
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 43% 44% 13% 1,474

Learn More: Believe, Don't believe

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are ages…

Belief in Heaven 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 3,638. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 24% 39% 24% 14% 3,638
Don't believe 31% 37% 21% 11% 1,183
Other/don't know 24% 40% 23% 13% 563

Generational cohort among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Heaven Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 3,638. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 14% 17% 32% 28% 9% 1% 3,638
Don't believe 18% 22% 29% 25% 6% 1% 1,183
Other/don't know 13% 20% 31% 28% 8% 1% 563

Gender composition among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Heaven Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 45% 55% 3,811
Don't believe 60% 40% 1,234
Other/don't know 51% 49% 613

Racial and ethnic composition among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who identify as…

Belief in Heaven White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 3,706. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 57% 10% 4% 24% 5% 3,706
Don't believe 60% 6% 8% 22% 5% 1,191
Other/don't know 59% 7% 4% 24% 7% 572

Immigrant status among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Heaven Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 3,682. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 23% 9% 68% 3,682
Don't believe 26% 10% 64% 1,203
Other/don't know 23% 10% 67% 584

Income distribution among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who have a household income of…

Belief in Heaven Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 2,901. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 50% 20% 20% 10% 2,901
Don't believe 44% 18% 23% 15% 1,001
Other/don't know 49% 19% 19% 13% 439

Educational distribution among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who have completed…

Belief in Heaven High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 3,745. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 55% 30% 10% 6% 3,745
Don't believe 45% 30% 16% 9% 1,218
Other/don't know 45% 34% 14% 7% 597

Marital status among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Heaven Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 3,765. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 46% 9% 15% 7% 23% 3,765
Don't believe 39% 11% 13% 3% 33% 1,224
Other/don't know 45% 9% 14% 3% 29% 587

Parent of children under 18 among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Heaven Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 3,774. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 35% 65% 3,774
Don't believe 28% 72% 1,228
Other/don't know 30% 70% 605

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say they…

Belief in Heaven Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 72% 21% 3% 1% 1% 1% 3,811
Don't believe 31% 18% 8% 1% 36% 5% 1,234
Other/don't know 51% 20% 10% 2% 4% 12% 613

Importance of religion in one's life among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say religion is…

Belief in Heaven Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 62% 26% 7% 4% 1% 3,811
Don't believe 22% 20% 19% 37% 1% 1,234
Other/don't know 39% 28% 15% 12% 6% 613

Attendance at religious services among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who attend religious services…

Belief in Heaven At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 40% 34% 25% 1% 3,811
Don't believe 15% 22% 62% 1% 1,234
Other/don't know 27% 26% 42% 5% 613

Frequency of prayer among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who pray…

Belief in Heaven At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 63% 16% 6% 13% 1% 3,811
Don't believe 26% 8% 5% 60% 1% 1,234
Other/don't know 45% 12% 6% 31% 6% 613

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who attend prayer group…

Belief in Heaven At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 29% 10% 9% 51% 2% 3,811
Don't believe 13% 4% 5% 78% < 1% 1,234
Other/don't know 20% 7% 7% 63% 4% 613

Frequency of meditation among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who meditate…

Belief in Heaven At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 44% 7% 3% 43% 3% 3,811
Don't believe 37% 8% 5% 47% 2% 1,234
Other/don't know 42% 8% 3% 42% 6% 613

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Belief in Heaven At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 63% 13% 8% 14% 2% 3,811
Don't believe 46% 12% 8% 31% 3% 1,234
Other/don't know 55% 10% 11% 18% 6% 613

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Belief in Heaven At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 45% 13% 12% 28% 2% 3,811
Don't believe 51% 12% 10% 25% 2% 1,234
Other/don't know 51% 12% 10% 21% 6% 613

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Belief in Heaven Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 39% 7% 44% 6% 4% 3,811
Don't believe 13% 16% 51% 17% 4% 1,234
Other/don't know 23% 14% 47% 7% 9% 613

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say…

Belief in Heaven There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 31% 65% 2% 2% 3,811
Don't believe 24% 73% 2% 2% 1,234
Other/don't know 27% 64% 5% 5% 613

Frequency of reading scripture among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who read scripture…

Belief in Heaven At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 10% 8% 39% 1% 3,811
Don't believe 17% 4% 7% 71% 1% 1,234
Other/don't know 28% 10% 7% 50% 5% 613

Interpreting scripture among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say the holy scripture is…

Belief in Heaven Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 39% 27% 5% 19% 9% 3,811
Don't believe 9% 11% 2% 69% 9% 1,234
Other/don't know 17% 15% 6% 37% 25% 613

Belief in Hell among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who …in hell

Belief in Heaven Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 73% 21% 6% 3,811
Don't believe 7% 91% 1% 1,234
Other/don't know 13% 24% 63% 613

SocialandPoliticalViews

Political ideology among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who are…

Belief in Heaven Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 28% 33% 18% 21% 3,811
Don't believe 16% 36% 27% 21% 1,234
Other/don't know 24% 29% 18% 29% 613

Views about size of government among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who would rather have…

Belief in Heaven Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 44% 45% 4% 7% 3,811
Don't believe 55% 36% 5% 5% 1,234
Other/don't know 46% 32% 8% 14% 613

Views about government aid to the poor among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say government aid to the poor…

Belief in Heaven Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 48% 6% 4% 3,811
Don't believe 41% 50% 6% 3% 1,234
Other/don't know 40% 43% 9% 8% 613

Views about abortion among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say abortion should be…

Belief in Heaven Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 43% 50% 7% 3,811
Don't believe 65% 28% 7% 1,234
Other/don't know 45% 41% 14% 613

Views about homosexuality among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say homosexuality…

Belief in Heaven Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 55% 32% 6% 6% 3,811
Don't believe 72% 18% 5% 4% 1,234
Other/don't know 58% 22% 9% 11% 613

Views about same-sex marriage among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who …same-sex marriage

Belief in Heaven Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 45% 41% 14% 3,811
Don't believe 69% 21% 9% 1,234
Other/don't know 49% 28% 22% 613

Views about environmental regulation among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say…

Belief in Heaven Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 37% 53% 4% 6% 3,811
Don't believe 29% 61% 4% 6% 1,234
Other/don't know 33% 49% 7% 11% 613

Views about human evolution among independents and those who don't lean to either party by belief in heaven

% of independents and those who don't lean to either party who say humans…

Belief in Heaven Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,811. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 22% 27% 5% 39% 8% 3,811
Don't believe 57% 15% 5% 20% 3% 1,234
Other/don't know 30% 15% 13% 28% 14% 613