Belief in Hell among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who …in hell

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 3,881. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 38% 54% 8% 3,881
2007 37% 52% 12% 3,367

Learn More: Believe, Don't believe

Belief in Hell among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by religious group

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who …in hell

Religious tradition Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Catholic 59% 34% 7% 738
Evangelical Protestant 70% 23% 7% 408
Historically Black Protestant 73% 23% 4% 111
Jewish 14% 81% 5% 144
Mainline Protestant 44% 45% 10% 647
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 17% 74% 9% 1,396

Learn More: Believe, Don't believe

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who are ages…

Belief in Hell 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 1,272. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 35% 33% 20% 12% 1,272
Don't believe 32% 33% 22% 12% 2,252
Other/don't know 27% 36% 25% 12% 298

Generational cohort among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who are…

Belief in Hell Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 1,272. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 22% 20% 26% 23% 8% 1% 1,272
Don't believe 22% 17% 27% 26% 8% 1% 2,252
Other/don't know 18% 19% 25% 28% 8% 1% 298

Gender composition among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who are…

Belief in Hell Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 53% 47% 1,285
Don't believe 56% 44% 2,287
Other/don't know 48% 52% 309

Racial and ethnic composition among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who identify as…

Belief in Hell White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 1,276. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 58% 12% 6% 20% 4% 1,276
Don't believe 73% 6% 6% 12% 4% 2,261
Other/don't know 66% 5% 5% 19% 6% 296

Immigrant status among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who are…

Belief in Hell Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 1,264. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 19% 13% 68% 1,264
Don't believe 14% 15% 72% 2,270
Other/don't know 16% 13% 72% 303

Income distribution among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who have a household income of…

Belief in Hell Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 1,131. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 39% 19% 23% 19% 1,131
Don't believe 24% 17% 29% 29% 2,097
Other/don't know 35% 16% 28% 21% 257

Educational distribution among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who have completed…

Belief in Hell High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 1,279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 40% 33% 17% 11% 1,279
Don't believe 22% 30% 26% 22% 2,281
Other/don't know 25% 40% 22% 13% 306

Marital status among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who are…

Belief in Hell Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 1,283. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 38% 10% 11% 4% 36% 1,283
Don't believe 42% 10% 13% 3% 32% 2,279
Other/don't know 39% 6% 15% 6% 34% 304

Parent of children under 18 among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who are…

Belief in Hell Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 1,284. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 30% 70% 1,284
Don't believe 22% 78% 2,282
Other/don't know 26% 74% 307

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say they…

Belief in Hell Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 63% 27% 6% 1% 1% 1% 1,285
Don't believe 27% 25% 13% 1% 30% 4% 2,287
Other/don't know 43% 25% 11% 2% 5% 14% 309

Importance of religion in one's life among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say religion is…

Belief in Hell Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 48% 36% 11% 5% 1% 1,285
Don't believe 18% 27% 24% 30% 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 32% 35% 19% 12% 3% 309

Attendance at religious services among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who attend religious services…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 29% 44% 26% 1% 1,285
Don't believe 11% 33% 55% < 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 18% 40% 41% 1% 309

Frequency of prayer among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who pray…

Belief in Hell At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 53% 24% 9% 14% < 1% 1,285
Don't believe 26% 14% 7% 53% < 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 32% 26% 9% 30% 4% 309

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who attend prayer group…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 18% 12% 11% 59% < 1% 1,285
Don't believe 7% 5% 6% 81% < 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 10% 9% 7% 72% 2% 309

Frequency of meditation among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who meditate…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 42% 9% 5% 43% 1% 1,285
Don't believe 38% 13% 6% 42% 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 41% 10% 4% 43% 2% 309

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 54% 19% 11% 15% 1% 1,285
Don't believe 48% 19% 11% 21% 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 52% 17% 8% 21% 2% 309

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 50% 16% 12% 20% 1% 1,285
Don't believe 60% 16% 11% 12% < 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 51% 21% 13% 13% 2% 309

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say…

Belief in Hell There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 28% 69% 1% 1% 1,285
Don't believe 20% 78% 1% 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 21% 72% 7% 1% 309

Frequency of reading scripture among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who read scripture…

Belief in Hell At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 30% 15% 10% 45% < 1% 1,285
Don't believe 13% 9% 9% 69% < 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 20% 11% 13% 54% 2% 309

Interpreting scripture among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say the holy scripture is…

Belief in Hell Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 25% 37% 2% 29% 7% 1,285
Don't believe 4% 13% < 1% 78% 5% 2,287
Other/don't know 11% 17% 2% 48% 23% 309

Belief in Heaven among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who …in heaven

Belief in Hell Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 95% 3% 2% 1,285
Don't believe 28% 66% 6% 2,287
Other/don't know 30% 3% 67% 309

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who identify as…

Belief in Hell Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 37% 17% 46% 1,285
Don't believe 21% 15% 65% 2,287
Other/don't know 29% 25% 46% 309

Political ideology among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who are…

Belief in Hell Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 31% 39% 25% 5% 1,285
Don't believe 13% 34% 50% 3% 2,287
Other/don't know 23% 41% 32% 4% 309

Views about size of government among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who would rather have…

Belief in Hell Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 50% 45% 3% 2% 1,285
Don't believe 43% 51% 3% 3% 2,287
Other/don't know 46% 40% 5% 8% 309

Views about government aid to the poor among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say government aid to the poor…

Belief in Hell Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 43% 51% 5% 1% 1,285
Don't believe 25% 71% 3% 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 36% 56% 7% 2% 309

Views about abortion among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say abortion should be…

Belief in Hell Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 53% 44% 3% 1,285
Don't believe 82% 16% 2% 2,287
Other/don't know 68% 25% 6% 309

Views about homosexuality among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say homosexuality…

Belief in Hell Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 72% 24% 3% 2% 1,285
Don't believe 91% 5% 3% 1% 2,287
Other/don't know 77% 12% 7% 4% 309

Views about same-sex marriage among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who …same-sex marriage

Belief in Hell Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 63% 31% 6% 1,285
Don't believe 88% 9% 3% 2,287
Other/don't know 70% 19% 12% 309

Views about environmental regulation among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say…

Belief in Hell Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 34% 62% 2% 2% 1,285
Don't believe 19% 77% 2% 2% 2,287
Other/don't know 27% 64% 5% 4% 309

Views about human evolution among adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong by belief in hell

% of adults who say philosophy/reason is their primary source of guidance on what's right and wrong who say humans…

Belief in Hell Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,285. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Believe 31% 34% 4% 28% 3% 1,285
Don't believe 70% 17% 3% 8% 2% 2,287
Other/don't know 39% 27% 16% 12% 6% 309