DemographicInformation

Age distribution among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who are ages…

Survey year 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 276. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 12% 22% 32% 34% 276
2007 14% 28% 33% 25% 312

Generational cohort among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who are…

Survey year Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 276. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 8% 7% 19% 45% 19% 2% 276
2007 < 1% 11% 22% 37% 23% 7% 312

Gender composition among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who are…

Survey year Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 43% 57% 279
2007 46% 54% 326

Racial and ethnic composition among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who identify as…

Survey year White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 278. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 89% 6% 1% 1% 3% 278
2007 92% 5% 1% 2% 1% 320

Immigrant status among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who are…

Survey year Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 278. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 5% 12% 84% 278
2007 5% 9% 86% 326

Income distribution among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who have a household income of…

Survey year Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 249. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 20% 12% 31% 37% 249
2007 18% 18% 30% 34% 270

Educational distribution among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who have completed…

Survey year High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 276. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 16% 31% 28% 26% 276

Marital status among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who are…

Survey year Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 278. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 59% 4% 12% 6% 19% 278
2007 52% 5% 11% 12% 20% 326

Parent of children under 18 among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who are…

Survey year Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 19% 81% 279
2007 25% 75% 326

BeliefsandPractices

Importance of religion in one's life among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say religion is…

Survey year Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 69% 27% 3% 1% < 1% 279
2007 63% 30% 6% 1% < 1% 326

Attendance at religious services among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who attend religious services…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 34% 53% 13% < 1% 279
2007 43% 45% 11% 1% 326

Frequency of prayer among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who pray…

Survey year At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 68% 20% 7% 5% < 1% 279
2007 59% 25% 5% 11% < 1% 326

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who attend prayer group…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 14% 10% 11% 65% 1% 279
2007 19% 9% 13% 59% < 1% 326

Frequency of meditation among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who meditate…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 47% 10% 4% 38% 1% 279
2007 46% 6% 6% 41% 1% 326

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 61% 24% 7% 8% < 1% 279
2007 54% 14% 17% 12% 3% 326

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 47% 19% 8% 24% 2% 279
2007 44% 16% 17% 20% 3% 326

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Survey year Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 27% 11% 54% 7% 2% 279
2007 21% 14% 57% 4% 4% 326

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say…

Survey year There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 31% 68% 2% < 1% 279

Frequency of reading scripture among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who read scripture…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 32% 14% 14% 40% < 1% 279
2007 28% 13% 10% 48% 1% 326

Interpreting scripture among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say the holy scripture is…

Survey year Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 15% 43% 1% 31% 10% 279
2007 12% 40% 1% 32% 14% 326

Belief in Heaven among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who …in heaven

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 85% 10% 5% 279
2007 80% 11% 10% 326

Belief in Hell among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who …in hell

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 53% 34% 13% 279
2007 49% 35% 16% 326

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who identify as…

Survey year Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 46% 8% 46% 279
2007 43% 10% 47% 326

Political ideology among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who are…

Survey year Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 35% 35% 28% 2% 279
2007 29% 43% 24% 4% 326

Views about size of government among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who would rather have…

Survey year Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 59% 34% 4% 3% 279
2007 55% 35% 4% 6% 326

Views about government aid to the poor among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say government aid to the poor…

Survey year Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 46% 49% 4% 1% 279

Views about abortion among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say abortion should be…

Survey year Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 74% 24% 1% 279
2007 70% 23% 7% 326

Views about homosexuality among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say homosexuality…

Survey year Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 78% 15% 6% 1% 279
2007 66% 27% 4% 3% 326

Views about same-sex marriage among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who …same-sex marriage

Survey year Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 72% 22% 6% 279

Views about environmental regulation among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say…

Survey year Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 35% 63% 2% 1% 279
2007 22% 72% 2% 4% 326

Views about human evolution among adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church

% of adults who believe in God with absolute certainty who are Episcopal Church who say humans…

Survey year Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 279. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 31% 40% 7% 18% 5% 279