Attendance at religious services among atheists

% of atheists who attend religious services…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,098. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 1% 10% 89% < 1% 1,098
2007 4% 10% 85% 1% 515

Learn More: Once or twice a month/a few times a year, Seldom/never

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who are ages…

Attendance at religious services 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 55% 27% 10% 7% 110
Seldom/never 38% 38% 15% 9% 959

Generational cohort among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who are…

Attendance at religious services Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 42% 22% 19% 12% 4% 1% 110
Seldom/never 26% 21% 29% 18% 5% 1% 959

Gender composition among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who are…

Attendance at religious services Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 73% 27% 113
Seldom/never 67% 33% 971

Racial and ethnic composition among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who identify as…

Attendance at religious services White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 70% 6% 9% 14% 2% 109
Seldom/never 80% 3% 6% 9% 2% 965

Immigrant status among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who are…

Attendance at religious services Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 20% 12% 68% 111
Seldom/never 11% 14% 75% 963

Income distribution among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who have a household income of…

Attendance at religious services Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 20% 19% 29% 32% 101
Seldom/never 24% 18% 28% 30% 897

Educational distribution among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who have completed…

Attendance at religious services High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 22% 30% 26% 22% 112
Seldom/never 27% 31% 26% 16% 971

Marital status among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who are…

Attendance at religious services Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 34% 11% 5% 1% 48% 112
Seldom/never 36% 13% 10% 2% 39% 969

Parent of children under 18 among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who are…

Attendance at religious services Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 27% 73% 113
Seldom/never 21% 79% 971

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say they…

Attendance at religious services Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 5% 7% < 1% 2% 85% < 1% 113
Seldom/never 1% 2% 2% < 1% 93% 1% 971

Importance of religion in one's life among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say religion is…

Attendance at religious services Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 7% 16% 23% 51% 2% 113
Seldom/never 1% 3% 9% 87% < 1% 971

Frequency of prayer among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who pray…

Attendance at religious services At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 6% 5% 1% 88% < 1% 113
Seldom/never < 1% < 1% 1% 99% < 1% 971

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who attend prayer group…

Attendance at religious services At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 3% 2% 9% 86% < 1% 113
Seldom/never < 1% < 1% 1% 99% < 1% 971

Frequency of meditation among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who meditate…

Attendance at religious services At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 19% 12% 3% 65% 1% 113
Seldom/never 18% 8% 5% 68% < 1% 971

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Attendance at religious services At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 34% 16% 11% 39% < 1% 113
Seldom/never 31% 14% 8% 46% 2% 971

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Attendance at religious services At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 56% 18% 13% 11% 1% 113
Seldom/never 53% 16% 11% 19% 1% 971

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Attendance at religious services Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 4% 25% 51% 20% 1% 113
Seldom/never < 1% 21% 43% 34% 2% 971

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say…

Attendance at religious services There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 18% 81% 1% < 1% 113
Seldom/never 15% 84% 1% 1% 971

Frequency of reading scripture among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who read scripture…

Attendance at religious services At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 5% 3% 14% 77% < 1% 113
Seldom/never 2% 3% 4% 91% < 1% 971

Interpreting scripture among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say the holy scripture is…

Attendance at religious services Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 4% 4% < 1% 91% 2% 113
Seldom/never < 1% 1% < 1% 97% 2% 971

Belief in Heaven among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who …in heaven

Attendance at religious services Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 12% 86% 3% 113
Seldom/never 3% 96% 1% 971

Belief in Hell among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who …in hell

Attendance at religious services Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 8% 88% 3% 113
Seldom/never 3% 96% 1% 971

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who identify as…

Attendance at religious services Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 13% 15% 72% 113
Seldom/never 15% 17% 68% 971

Political ideology among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who are…

Attendance at religious services Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 7% 38% 51% 4% 113
Seldom/never 10% 28% 57% 5% 971

Views about size of government among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who would rather have…

Attendance at religious services Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 33% 65% 2% < 1% 113
Seldom/never 41% 52% 4% 3% 971

Views about government aid to the poor among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say government aid to the poor…

Attendance at religious services Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 23% 74% 2% 1% 113
Seldom/never 22% 74% 3% 1% 971

Views about abortion among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say abortion should be…

Attendance at religious services Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 86% 14% < 1% 113
Seldom/never 88% 10% 3% 971

Views about homosexuality among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say homosexuality…

Attendance at religious services Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 93% 4% < 1% 3% 113
Seldom/never 95% 4% 1% < 1% 971

Views about same-sex marriage among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who …same-sex marriage

Attendance at religious services Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 91% 4% 6% 113
Seldom/never 93% 4% 3% 971

Views about environmental regulation among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say…

Attendance at religious services Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 14% 82% 4% < 1% 113
Seldom/never 17% 79% 2% 2% 971

Views about human evolution among atheists by religious attendance

% of atheists who say humans…

Attendance at religious services Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 0. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Once or twice a month/a few times a year 89% 6% < 1% 4% < 1% 113
Seldom/never 91% 2% 2% 5% < 1% 971