DemographicInformation

Age distribution among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who are ages…

Survey year 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 157. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 10% 27% 29% 33% 157
2007 16% 38% 29% 16% 134

Generational cohort among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who are…

Survey year Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 157. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 10% 5% 22% 40% 21% 1% 157
2007 < 1% 16% 25% 37% 16% 6% 134

Gender composition among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who are…

Survey year Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 36% 64% 158
2007 43% 57% 138

Racial and ethnic composition among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who identify as…

Survey year White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 156. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 81% 15% 1% 4% < 1% 156
2007 85% 7% 1% 5% 2% 138

Immigrant status among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who are…

Survey year Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 14% 6% 80% 158
2007 8% 6% 86% 138

Income distribution among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who have a household income of…

Survey year Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 143. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 20% 10% 37% 33% 143
2007 17% 16% 33% 34% 113

Educational distribution among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who have completed…

Survey year High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 157. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 24% 22% 19% 34% 157

Marital status among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who are…

Survey year Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 61% 4% 10% 10% 16% 158
2007 50% 6% 14% 9% 21% 134

Parent of children under 18 among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who are…

Survey year Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 25% 75% 158
2007 31% 69% 136

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say they…

Survey year Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 55% 33% 8% < 1% 2% 2% 158
2007 58% 30% 7% 1% 3% 1% 138

Importance of religion in one's life among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say religion is…

Survey year Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 53% 28% 18% 1% < 1% 158
2007 45% 33% 17% 5% < 1% 138

Attendance at religious services among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who attend religious services…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 40% 42% 18% < 1% 158
2007 35% 41% 22% 2% 138

Frequency of prayer among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who pray…

Survey year At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 49% 26% 9% 15% 1% 158
2007 44% 34% 7% 13% 3% 138

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who attend prayer group…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 29% 11% 8% 52% < 1% 158
2007 15% 10% 8% 66% 2% 138

Frequency of meditation among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who meditate…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 39% 15% 6% 40% < 1% 158
2007 37% 10% 7% 43% 2% 138

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 63% 13% 13% 11% 1% 158
2007 42% 15% 19% 19% 6% 138

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 55% 17% 14% 13% 1% 158
2007 46% 17% 16% 18% 3% 138

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Survey year Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 23% 15% 48% 11% 3% 158
2007 14% 12% 62% 6% 6% 138

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say…

Survey year There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 17% 80% 2% 1% 158

Frequency of reading scripture among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who read scripture…

Survey year At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 30% 11% 16% 44% < 1% 158
2007 19% 16% 8% 56% 2% 138

Interpreting scripture among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say the holy scripture is…

Survey year Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 12% 36% 1% 38% 13% 158
2007 16% 22% 1% 42% 18% 138

Belief in Heaven among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who …in heaven

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 72% 23% 6% 158
2007 66% 17% 18% 138

Belief in Hell among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who …in hell

Survey year Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 41% 49% 10% 158
2007 45% 44% 11% 138

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who identify as…

Survey year Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 6% 9% 85% 158
2007 14% 8% 78% 138

Views about size of government among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who would rather have…

Survey year Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 22% 72% 2% 4% 158
2007 35% 53% 7% 5% 138

Views about government aid to the poor among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say government aid to the poor…

Survey year Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 16% 82% 1% 1% 158

Views about abortion among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say abortion should be…

Survey year Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 82% 17% 2% 158
2007 82% 12% 6% 138

Views about homosexuality among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say homosexuality…

Survey year Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 87% 9% 1% 2% 158
2007 80% 14% 3% 4% 138

Views about same-sex marriage among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who …same-sex marriage

Survey year Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 86% 10% 4% 158

Views about environmental regulation among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say…

Survey year Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 14% 85% 1% 1% 158
2007 11% 88% < 1% < 1% 138

Views about human evolution among liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.)

% of liberals who are presbyterian Family (Mainline Trad.) who say humans…

Survey year Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 158. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 53% 30% 5% 10% 2% 158