Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults who do not believe in Hell

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Survey year Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 12,839. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
2014 14% 17% 52% 15% 2% 12,839
2007 12% 16% 60% 9% 3% 10,938

Learn More: Religion, Philosophy/reason, Common sense, Science

Sources of guidance on right and wrong among adults who do not believe in Hell by religious group

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say they look to…most for guidance on right and wrong

Religious tradition Religion Philosophy/reason Common sense Science Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 192. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Buddhist 4% 35% 40% 15% 6% 192
Catholic 20% 12% 53% 14% 2% 2,080
Evangelical Protestant 37% 11% 44% 6% 2% 957
Hindu 3% 21% 53% 21% 1% 118
Historically Black Protestant 30% 11% 50% 8% 1% 225
Jehovah's Witness 81% 1% 13% 2% 4% 215
Jewish 10% 19% 52% 16% 3% 637
Mainline Protestant 16% 16% 57% 9% 3% 2,056
Mormon 57% 5% 28% 5% 5% 227
Unaffiliated (religious "nones") 3% 20% 55% 20% 1% 5,272

Learn More: Religion, Philosophy/reason, Common sense, Science

DemographicInformation

Age distribution among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are ages…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Sample Size
Sample size = 1,695. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 15% 30% 32% 23% 1,695
Philosophy/reason 32% 33% 22% 12% 2,252
Common sense 24% 34% 24% 18% 6,353
Science 29% 36% 20% 14% 1,973
Don't know 15% 24% 31% 31% 328

Generational cohort among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Younger Millennial Older Millennial Generation X Baby Boomer Silent Greatest Sample Size
Sample size = 1,695. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 9% 12% 24% 39% 14% 2% 1,695
Philosophy/reason 22% 17% 27% 26% 8% 1% 2,252
Common sense 15% 17% 27% 29% 11% 1% 6,353
Science 19% 18% 29% 24% 9% 1% 1,973
Don't know 8% 10% 21% 37% 21% 4% 328

Gender composition among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Men Women Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 37% 63% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 56% 44% 2,287
Common sense 51% 49% 6,467
Science 59% 41% 2,004
Don't know 50% 50% 347

Racial and ethnic composition among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who identify as…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong White Black Asian Latino Other/Mixed Sample Size
Sample size = 1,707. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 60% 12% 2% 23% 4% 1,707
Philosophy/reason 73% 6% 6% 12% 4% 2,261
Common sense 73% 7% 5% 12% 3% 6,381
Science 69% 5% 8% 16% 4% 1,976
Don't know 74% 4% 3% 14% 6% 327

Immigrant status among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Immigrants Second generation Third generation or higher Sample Size
Sample size = 1,717. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 20% 11% 69% 1,717
Philosophy/reason 14% 15% 72% 2,270
Common sense 13% 12% 75% 6,401
Science 23% 13% 64% 1,978
Don't know 14% 13% 73% 343

Income distribution among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who have a household income of…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Less than $30,000 $30,000-$49,999 $50,000-$99,999 $100,000 or more Sample Size
Sample size = 1,505. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 39% 21% 24% 16% 1,505
Philosophy/reason 24% 17% 29% 29% 2,097
Common sense 28% 20% 29% 24% 5,746
Science 25% 17% 29% 29% 1,820
Don't know 25% 26% 25% 25% 255

Educational distribution among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who have completed…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong High school or less Some college College Post-graduate degree Sample Size
Sample size = 1,724. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 45% 27% 15% 12% 1,724
Philosophy/reason 22% 30% 26% 22% 2,281
Common sense 36% 31% 20% 13% 6,437
Science 25% 27% 26% 22% 1,991
Don't know 25% 29% 25% 21% 345

Marital status among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Married Living with a partner Divorced/separated Widowed Never married Sample Size
Sample size = 1,728. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 53% 5% 14% 8% 20% 1,728
Philosophy/reason 42% 10% 13% 3% 32% 2,279
Common sense 45% 10% 12% 6% 27% 6,449
Science 46% 10% 9% 3% 31% 1,989
Don't know 53% 5% 14% 9% 20% 339

Parent of children under 18 among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Parents Non-parents Sample Size
Sample size = 1,725. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 28% 72% 1,725
Philosophy/reason 22% 78% 2,282
Common sense 26% 74% 6,453
Science 27% 73% 2,000
Don't know 21% 79% 344

BeliefsandPractices

Belief in God among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say they…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Believe in God; absolutely certain Believe in God; fairly certain Believe in God; not too/not at all certain Believe in God; don't know Do not believe in God Other/don't know if they believe in God Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 78% 16% 3% 1% 2% 1% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 27% 25% 13% 1% 30% 4% 2,287
Common sense 34% 27% 10% 1% 25% 4% 6,467
Science 19% 21% 11% < 1% 45% 4% 2,004
Don't know 49% 19% 5% 2% 15% 9% 347

Importance of religion in one's life among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say religion is…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 79% 14% 3% 2% 1% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 18% 27% 24% 30% 1% 2,287
Common sense 21% 30% 22% 27% 1% 6,467
Science 14% 21% 21% 44% < 1% 2,004
Don't know 46% 19% 12% 19% 5% 347

Attendance at religious services among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who attend religious services…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month/a few times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 58% 28% 14% < 1% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 11% 33% 55% < 1% 2,287
Common sense 12% 34% 54% < 1% 6,467
Science 9% 30% 61% < 1% 2,004
Don't know 30% 27% 40% 3% 347

Frequency of prayer among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who pray…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least daily Weekly Monthly Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 77% 12% 3% 7% < 1% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 26% 14% 7% 53% < 1% 2,287
Common sense 28% 15% 8% 49% 1% 6,467
Science 17% 11% 7% 64% < 1% 2,004
Don't know 46% 12% 5% 32% 5% 347

Frequency of participation in prayer, scripture study or religious education groups among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who attend prayer group…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 43% 10% 8% 38% 1% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 7% 5% 6% 81% < 1% 2,287
Common sense 7% 4% 5% 83% < 1% 6,467
Science 5% 3% 5% 87% < 1% 2,004
Don't know 22% 5% 5% 66% 2% 347

Frequency of meditation among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who meditate…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 54% 7% 3% 34% 2% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 38% 13% 6% 42% 1% 2,287
Common sense 30% 10% 5% 54% 1% 6,467
Science 26% 10% 6% 57% 1% 2,004
Don't know 50% 9% 3% 33% 5% 347

Frequency of feeling spiritual peace and wellbeing among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who feel a sense of spiritual peace and wellbeing…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 74% 10% 6% 9% 1% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 48% 19% 11% 21% 1% 2,287
Common sense 43% 16% 12% 28% 1% 6,467
Science 39% 16% 12% 31% 1% 2,004
Don't know 59% 14% 7% 14% 6% 347

Frequency of feeling wonder about the universe among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who feel a sense of wonder about the universe…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 52% 14% 11% 20% 2% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 60% 16% 11% 12% < 1% 2,287
Common sense 43% 16% 15% 26% 1% 6,467
Science 50% 17% 13% 19% < 1% 2,004
Don't know 60% 10% 9% 15% 5% 347

Belief in absolute standards for right and wrong among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong There are clear standards for what is right and wrong Right or wrong depends on the situation Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 41% 57% 1% 1% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 20% 78% 1% 1% 2,287
Common sense 20% 78% 1% 1% 6,467
Science 18% 81% < 1% 1% 2,004
Don't know 26% 62% 6% 6% 347

Frequency of reading scripture among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who read scripture…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom/never Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 56% 11% 5% 26% 1% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 13% 9% 9% 69% < 1% 2,287
Common sense 11% 7% 8% 74% 1% 6,467
Science 7% 5% 7% 80% < 1% 2,004
Don't know 27% 8% 7% 55% 2% 347

Interpreting scripture among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say the holy scripture is…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Word of God; should be taken literally Word of God; not everything taken literally Word of God; other/don't know Not the word of God Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 36% 37% 3% 17% 7% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 4% 13% < 1% 78% 5% 2,287
Common sense 8% 17% 1% 68% 7% 6,467
Science 5% 8% < 1% 82% 5% 2,004
Don't know 12% 16% 6% 44% 22% 347

Belief in Heaven among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who …in heaven

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Believe Don't believe Other/don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 67% 27% 6% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 28% 66% 6% 2,287
Common sense 38% 56% 5% 6,467
Science 22% 74% 3% 2,004
Don't know 40% 50% 9% 347

SocialandPoliticalViews

Party affiliation among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who identify as…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Republican/lean Rep. No lean Democrat/lean Dem. Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 35% 28% 37% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 21% 15% 65% 2,287
Common sense 28% 19% 53% 6,467
Science 18% 16% 66% 2,004
Don't know 16% 34% 50% 347

Political ideology among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who are…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Conservative Moderate Liberal Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 39% 26% 22% 13% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 13% 34% 50% 3% 2,287
Common sense 21% 38% 35% 6% 6,467
Science 14% 35% 48% 3% 2,004
Don't know 19% 29% 32% 20% 347

Views about size of government among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who would rather have…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Smaller government; fewer services Bigger government; more services Depends Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 49% 44% 3% 4% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 43% 51% 3% 3% 2,287
Common sense 52% 42% 3% 3% 6,467
Science 41% 53% 3% 3% 2,004
Don't know 31% 37% 12% 20% 347

Views about government aid to the poor among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say government aid to the poor…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Does more harm than good Does more good than harm Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 42% 53% 3% 2% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 25% 71% 3% 1% 2,287
Common sense 40% 55% 3% 2% 6,467
Science 28% 68% 3% 1% 2,004
Don't know 20% 56% 16% 8% 347

Views about abortion among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say abortion should be…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Legal in all/most cases Illegal in all/most cases Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 39% 56% 5% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 82% 16% 2% 2,287
Common sense 76% 21% 3% 6,467
Science 81% 16% 3% 2,004
Don't know 63% 17% 20% 347

Views about homosexuality among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say homosexuality…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Should be accepted Should be discouraged Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 51% 41% 5% 4% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 91% 5% 3% 1% 2,287
Common sense 82% 13% 3% 2% 6,467
Science 89% 8% 2% 2% 2,004
Don't know 69% 14% 7% 10% 347

Views about same-sex marriage among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who …same-sex marriage

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Strongly favor/favor Oppose/strongly oppose Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 42% 50% 8% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 88% 9% 3% 2,287
Common sense 77% 17% 6% 6,467
Science 85% 12% 3% 2,004
Don't know 64% 19% 17% 347

Views about environmental regulation among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Neither/both equally Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 38% 54% 3% 4% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 19% 77% 2% 2% 2,287
Common sense 30% 66% 2% 2% 6,467
Science 19% 78% 1% 2% 2,004
Don't know 18% 61% 12% 9% 347

Views about human evolution among adults who do not believe in Hell by sources of guidance on right and wrong

% of adults who do not believe in Hell who say humans…

Sources of guidance on right and wrong Evolved; due to natural processes Evolved; due to God's design Evolved; don't know how Always existed in present form Don't know Sample Size
Sample size = 1,734. Visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire. Sample sizes and margins of error vary from subgroup to subgroup, from year to year and from state to state. You can see the sample size for the estimates in this chart on rollover or in the last column of the table. And visit this table to see approximate margins of error for a group of a given size. Readers should always bear in mind the approximate margin of error for the group they are examining when making comparisons with other groups or assessing the significance of trends over time. For full question wording, see the survey questionnaire.
Religion 17% 27% 4% 48% 5% 1,734
Philosophy/reason 70% 17% 3% 8% 2% 2,287
Common sense 58% 18% 4% 17% 3% 6,467
Science 76% 10% 3% 9% 1% 2,004
Don't know 37% 19% 18% 13% 13% 347